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Xanthoparmelia somloensis (Gyelnik) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia polyphylloides f. somloënsis (Gyeln.) Gyeln.,  more]
Xanthoparmelia somloensis image

Global occurrence: Africa (incl Madagascar) | Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Oceania – Australasia | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Americas – South and Central America | Eurasia – Asia Tropical | Arctic.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like; thallus: continuous, diffuse, effuse; [th] upper surface: yellow(ish) green | green(ish) yellow; [th upper surface]: epruinose; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 1.2 (high) 4.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): contiguous, coherent (throughout the thallus); [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | cracked, fissured, fractured, rimulose, subrimose; [th] lower surface: black(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [th lower surface] specific structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizoid structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizinoid structures: unbranched, simple.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (low) 3.0 (high) 15.0; ascoma: sessile, superficial | subpedicellate, substipitate, subpedunculate, substalked; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose; [ascm, if apoth] margin surface; [if perith] periostiolar area, ostiole, involucrellum: grey(ish) green | yellow(ish) green; [ascm, if apoth] margin excipular photobionts: present | abundant; [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: hyaline, colourless; [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with widening axial body towards the apex (= Lecanora-, Parmelia-, Rinodina-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] shape: ellipsoidal; [asp] length [µm]: (low) 8.0 (high) 9.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 4.0 (high) 5.0; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Conidiomata: absent | present.  Conidia: bifusiform; [co] length [µm]: (low) 5.0 (high) 6.0.  Secondary metabolites: present, consalazinic acid | norstictic acid | protocetraric acid | salazinic acid | usnic acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.