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Xanthoparmelia californica Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
Xanthoparmelia californica image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, tightly adnate to adnate, 3-6 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, contiguous to slightly imbricate, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, lobulate or not; apices: subrotund to subtruncate, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow-green to bluish green, smooth but becoming rugose with age, shiny, epruinose and emaculate, without soralia, isidia, or pustulae medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale to medium brown, plane, moderately rhizinate; rhizines: pale brown, simple, 0.3-0.5 mm long Apothecia: common, adnate, 1-3 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin: smooth, pruina absent asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 8-9 x 4-5 µm Pycnidia: common, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 4-6 x 0.5 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow becoming orange, C-, KC-, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with norstictic acid (major) and connorstictic and ±hyposalazinic acids (minor or trace). Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, often in open, arid habitats World distribution: southwestern North America Sonoran distribution: occasional at lower to intermediate elevations in southern Arizona, southern California and Sonora.