Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, loosely adnate, 2-10 cm in diam., lobate lobes: linear, elongate, slightly imbricate, convex, separate, 2-7 mm wide; apices: subtruncate, ciliate; cilia: sparse, up to 5 mm long, simple upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth, shiny, sometimes white pruinose, conspicuously white maculate soredia: farinose to granular, common, in globose, terminal or marginal soralia that are irregularly erumpent; isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black to brown at the tips, rhizinate (except tips); rhizines: scattered, simple to rarely branched Apothecia: not seen Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow turning deep red, C- or C+ pink, KC- or KC+ pink, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with salazinic acid (major); consalazinic acids (minor); gyrophoric and protocetraric acids (accessory). Substrate and ecology: usually on hardwood trees or pines in open habitats, rarely on rocks or soil World distribution: Mexico, Central America and Chile Sonoran distribution: Sierra Madre Occidental region of Sinaloa.