Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, loosely adnate, 4-15 cm in diam., lobate lobes: linear, elongate, loosely imbricate, convex, separate, 2-5 mm wide; apices: subtruncate, ciliate; cilia: common, to 10 mm long, simple upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth, shiny, sometimes white pruinose, conspicuously white maculate; isidia, soredia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black to brown at the tips, rhizinate (except tips); rhizines: scattered, simple to rarely branched Apothecia: common, laminal on thallus, 2-10 mm wide, stipitate; margin: smooth; disc: red brown to dark brown, becoming perforate with age ascospores: ellipsoid, 16-20 x 8-10 µm Pycnidia: punctiform conidia: 16-21 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow turning deep red, C- or C+ pink, KC- or KC+ pink, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with salazinic acid (major); consalazinic acids (minor); gyrophoric, protocetraric, norstictic and protolichesterinic acids (accessory). Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks World distribution: central to southern Mexico Sonoran distribution: Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua and Sinaloa.