Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: loosely adnate, foliose, 3-15 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 10-15 mm wide; apices: rotund, becoming crenate and dissected with age, ciliate; cilia: up to 3.0 mm long upper surface: yellow green with some blackened areas, smooth, dull to shiny, epruinose, emaculate, finely reticulately cracked with age isidia: simple to coralloid branched, sometimes apically ciliate, common, laminal; soredia and pustulae: absent medulla: pale orange yellow with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate; rhizines: simple Apothecia: rare, substipitate, up to 4 mm in diam.; margin: sparsely sorediate; disc: brown, imperforate ascospores: broadly ellipsoid, 10-16 x 7-10 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C+ red, KC+ red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major), atranorin and chloroatranorin (trace); medulla with gyrophoric acid (major). Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks World distribution: neotropics from Mexico to Paraguay Sonoran distribution: on pines in the pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Sinaloa.