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Parmelia skultii Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
Parmelia skultii image
Stephen Sharnoff  

Global occurrence: Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico).  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like; continuous, diffuse, effuse; [th] upper surface: black(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | white(ish); [th upper surface]: epruinose | pruinose; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 2.0 (high) 4.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | rugulose, finely wrinkled | pseudocyphellate, with pseudocyphellae; [th] lower surface: black(ish); [th lower surface] specific structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizoid structures: present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizinoid structures: unbranched, simple | furcately branched, furcate, forked.  Ascomata: absent.  Secondary metabolites: present; atranorin | chloroatranorin | consalazinic acid | fumarprotocetraric acid | norstictic acid | protolichesterinic acid | salazinic acid | stictic acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.