Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, 2-7 cm in diam., adnate to loosely adnate, subdichotomously lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, plane or convex, 2-7 mm wide, contiguous; margin: entire; apices: subtruncate, plane to convex upper surface: light gray, smooth, shiny, emaculate soredia: granular, usually in capitate soralia but sometimes in crateriform, slightly excavated soralia; isidia and dactyls absent medulla: predominately white with continuous algal layer but orange-brown below the soralia and intermittently orange-brown adjacent to the lower cortex lower surface: black, shiny; rhizines: sparse, black, dichotomous Apothecia: sparse, laminal, sessile, 2-3 mm in diam.; disc: brown; margin: crenulate, sorediate asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: rare, ellipsoid, 11-12 x 6-7 µm Pycnidia: marginal, immersed conidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with lividic acid and skyrin (both major), pigmentosin A (or B) (major or minor), methoxycolensoic, physodic, oxyphysodic and 4-O-methylphysodic (all minor) and colensoic (minor or trace). Substrate and ecology: on bark in oak and pine forests of montane regions World distribution: pantropical and extending into some adjacent temperate areas Sonoran distribution: in the southern mountains of Baja California Sur.