Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, 2-9 cm in diam., closely adnate, subdichotomously to irregularly lobate lobes: sublinear, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, 1-4 mm wide; margin: entire but sometimes incised; apices: subtruncate to subrotund, plane to convex upper surface: light gray, smooth to somewhat rugulose, dull, faintly maculate or emaculate, epruinose soredia: farinose to slightly granular, in laminal to subterminal, capitate soralia that sometimes become confluent; isidia and dactyls absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black centrally, brown peripherally; rhizines: moderately common, black, dichotomous Apothecia: rare, laminal, substipitate, 2-4 mm diam.; disc: brown; margin: smooth, esorediate asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, 8-10 x 6-8 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C± pink (depending on the concentration of gyrophoric acid), KC± pink, P+ red Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with protocetraric acid (major) and gyrophoric acid (trace or absent). Substrate and ecology: on bark of hardwoods and pines in montane and upper montane forests World distribution: neotropics (and extending to central Chile) Sonoran distribution: Sinaloa in the Sierra Madre Occidental.