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Hypogymnia bitteri (Lynge) Ahti
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia bitteri Lynge]
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: appressed, up to 9 (-12) cm broad; texture: cartilaginous; branching: variable; budding: present lobes: contiguous, 0.5-4 mm broad, sometimes black bordered; profile: pinched and swollen; width/height ratio: 1-15; tips and axils: often minutely perforate upper surface: greenish gray to brown, dark mottled, becoming rugose soredia: predominantly terminal, both on the main lobes and short, upturned, lateral lobes, sometimes with secondarily diffuse laminal soredia; isidia absent, lobules sparse or none medulla: hollow; ceiling of cavity: white or dark; floor of cavity: dark lower surface: black, entire; Apothecia: not seen in local material Pycnidia: rare conidia: not seen Spot tests: cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ pale yellow, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ orange-red, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with physodic acid (major), 3-hydroxyphysodic acid (accessory, frequency about 20%), 2'-O-methylphysodic acid (minor accessory), unknown C8 (minor accessory). Substrate and ecology: typically on bark or wood, especially conifers in montane and subalpine forests, also on mosses or detritus over rock or alpine sod World distribution: circumpolar arctic, boreal, and montane in continental climates in Europe, Asia, and North America, south through Mexico along the cordillera well into South America; high mountains in Africa Sonoran distribution: southern Rocky Mountains. Notes: See discussion under H. austerodes.
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Troy McMullin  
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Troy McMullin  
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Lucy Taylor  
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image
Hypogymnia bitteri image