Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, verrucose to verruculose, ecorticate; prothallus: blackish brown surface: whitish gray to yellowish white; with an indistinct margin, esorediate Apothecia: sessile, 0.6-0.9 mm in diam., lecanorine disc: dark red to red-brown, epruinose margin: prominent, entire, verruculose, without a parathecial ring amphithecium: present, with numerous algal cells, with small and large crystals, barely corticate; cortex: indistinct, inspersed, 10-15 µm thick parathecium: hyaline, without crystals, 15-20 µm thick epihymenium: brown to red-brown, with small crystals, pigmentation and crystals dissolving in K hymenium: hyaline, clear; paraphyses: not to slightly thickened (up to 3 µm wide) apically; subhymenium: hyaline, 15-20 µm thick; hypothecium: upper part orange-brown, lower part reddish brown, in K becoming red to purple, without oil droplets asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 10-12.5 x 6-7.5 µm Pycnidia: immersed in the thallus conidia: filiform, straight or slightly curved, 14-17 x 0.5-1 µm Spot tests: K+ yellow, C- KC-, P+ pale yellow Secondary metabolites: atranorin (major), boryquinone (major), chloroatranorin (minor), constipatic acid (minor), protoconstipatic acid (minor) and skyrin (minor). Substrate and ecology: on bark of deciduous trees and shrubs World distribution: probably pantropical, known from East Africa and the neotropics Sonoran distribution: Baja California Sur and Sinaloa. Notes: Lecanora hypocrocina belongs to the L. subfusca group and is recognized by its pigmented hypothecium that turns red to purple in K due to the presence of boryquinone. These records are the first for L. hypocrocina from North America. The thallus of L. hypocrocina is usually much smaller than the thallus of L. pseudistera.