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Lecanora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Ach.
Family: Lecanoraceae
[Biatora sulphurea (Hoffm.) Nilson,  more]
Lecanora sulphurea image

Global occurrence: Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Arctic.  Substrate: lichens, lichenized fungi | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) | lichenicolous (in/on lichens).  Thallus: crustose (crustaceous) – episubstratal – unspecified; cracked, fissured, fractured, rimose | compartimentized – areolate, squamulate; [th] upper surface: yellow(ish) (if dull: buff) | grey(ish) green; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent; [th] medulla amyloidity: absent.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma: immersed, innate | subsessile, subimmersed, adnate, semi-immersed, emergent | sessile, superficial; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: plane, flat, flattened, expanded | convex; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: black(ish) | grey(ish) | brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) green (olivaceous, olive green); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: pruinose; [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present; [ascm] epihymenium, epithecium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) green (olivaceous, olive green).  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with widening axial body towards the apex (= Lecanora-, Parmelia-, Rinodina-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] length [µm]: (low) 9.0 (high) 13.0 (max) 16.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 4.0 (high) 6.0; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Secondary metabolites: present, α-collatolic acid | atranorin | gangaleoidin | usnic acid | zeorin (hopane-6α,22-diol).  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.