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Pycnothelia papillaria Dufour
Family: Cladoniaceae
[Biatora epimarta (Nyl.) Walt. Watson,  more]
Pycnothelia papillaria image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: crustose (crustaceous) – episubstratal – unspecified | subfruticose (subfruticous), fruticulose, dactyliform | fruticose (fruticous), shrub-like, beard-like thallus: granular, granulose, granulate [th] upper surface: grey(ish) | white(ish) | green(ish) grey | grey(ish) white | yellow(ish) white (ivory, off-white, cream-coloured) [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 0.5 (high) 1.5 (max) 2.0 [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | uneven, undulate ascomata: absent | present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.3 (high) 0.5 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: convex [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown) [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present asci: lecanoralean [asc] tholus: thickened [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube, ring (= Collema-, Micarea-, Porpidia-, Psora-types etc) ascospores: (median) 8.0 [asp] shape: elongate-fusiform, ellipsoidal-fusiform [asp] length [µm]: (low) 9.0 (high) 15.0 [asp] width [µm]: (low) 2.0 (high) 3.5 [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular | present [asp] septa: transversely septate [asp] transversal septa: (low) 1.0 (high) 3.0 [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent conidiomata: absent | present conidia: fusiform | [cur] – curved, unciform, falcate, sickle-shaped [co] length [µm]: (low) 8.0 (high) 14.0 secondary metabolites: present secondary metabolites: atranorin | chloroatranorin | lichesterinic acid | protolichesterinic acid | squamatic acid | unknown/unidentified compound(s) primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.

substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.
Pycnothelia papillaria image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pycnothelia papillaria image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pycnothelia papillaria image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pycnothelia papillaria image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pycnothelia papillaria image
Stephen Sharnoff  
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