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Cladonia luteoalba Wheldon & A. Wilson
Family: Cladoniaceae
Cladonia luteoalba image
AndrĂ© Aptroot  

Global occurrence: Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Americas – South and Central America | Arctic | Antarctic – Southern Subpolar Islands, Subantarctic Islands.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | lichens, lichenized fungi | wood – dead, living | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: squamulose (squamulous) | fruticose (fruticous), shrub-like, beard-like; [th] upper surface: green(ish) yellow; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent; [th] lower surface: yellow(ish) (if dull: buff).  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma: sessile, superficial | pedicellate, stipitate, pedunculate, stalked; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: red(dish); [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube, ring (= Collema-, Micarea-, Porpidia-, Psora-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Conidiomata: absent | present; [co] length [µm]: (low) 5.0 (high) 14.0.  Secondary metabolites: present, barbatic acid | didymic acid | fumarprotocetraric acid | porphyrilic acid | rhodocladonic acid | squamatic acid | usnic acid | zeorin (hopane-6α,22-diol) | quaesitic acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.