Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent; squamules: 1-10 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, palmate-lobate, laciniate, with accessory isidioid lobules reiterating and resembling the original squamules; esorediate or granular sorediate beneath margins, sometimes disintegrating into a soredial mass podetia: 13-65 (-80) mm tall, gray to green, irregularly tubular, sparingly to much branched from margins of funnel-like openings, which may give rise to one or more proliferations from margins surface: ecorticate, sorediate from base to apices, with soredia toward base growing into elongate (1-2 mm) sinuate-edged squamules, soredia above these squamules granular to farinose Apothecia: infrequent, 1-3 mm diam, dark brown ascospores: oblong to ellipsoid, (5-) 7-17 x 3-5 micro meter Pycnidia: at margins of funnel-like openings, cylindrical to conical, with red gelatin conidia: 3-8 x 0.5-1 micro meter Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P-, UV+ ice blue Secondary metabolites: thallus with squamatic acid (in other regions also thamnolic acid chemotype [P+ yellow] present); apothecia with barbatic acid. Habitat and ecology: growing in deep shade on rotting stumps or partially buried, rotting wood, usually in north-facing situations World distribution: Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America (southern part) Sonoran distribution: rare in Arizona. Notes: This species is distinguishable by the abundant farinose soredia and open axils. The Arizona material is atypical, as it scarcely forms funnel-like axils.