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Cladonia albonigra Brodo & Ahti
Family: Cladoniaceae
Cladonia albonigra image

Global occurrence: Americas – North America (incl Mexico).  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | wood – dead, living.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: squamulose (squamulous) | fruticose (fruticous), shrub-like, beard-like; [th] upper surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | grey(ish) green | yellow(ish) green | red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown); [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present; [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: present; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (min) 0.4 (low) 1.0 (high) 2.5; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: verrucose, warted.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (low) 1.0 (high) 2.0; ascoma: pedicellate, stipitate, pedunculate, stalked; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: distinctly convex | strongly convex, hemispherical, (sub-)globose; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube, ring (= Collema-, Micarea-, Porpidia-, Psora-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Conidiomata: absent | present.  Secondary metabolites: present, 4-O-demethylgrayanic acid | 4-O-methylcryptochlorophaeic acid | fumarprotocetraric acid | grayanic acid | protocetraric acid | unknown/unidentified compound(s).  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.