Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent, sinuate to crenate-edged, narrowly lobed, becoming involute-concave, ascending; squmules: 2-5 mm long and 0.3-2 mm wide, esorediate or sparsely granulose-sorediate on the margins and underside podetia: simple or fastigiately branched toward apices; sterile branches: blunt; fertile branches: ± dilated, 15-45 mm tall, up to 3 mm wide, cupless surface: basally verruculose, areolate to squamulose; podetial squamules: similar to primary squamules, narrowly lobed; upper surface of podetia: decorticate and subfarinose to granular sorediate Apothecia: dark brown to reddish-brown, up to 3 mm diam, perforate, lobate, or conglomerate, bulging over edge of the podetia ascospores: oblong, 10-16 x 3 micro meter Pycnidia: on basal squamules or at tips of podetia, urn-shaped to ovoid, constricted at base, containing hyaline gelatin conidia: 5-8 x 0.5 micro meter Spot tests: K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ orange, UV- Secondary metabolites: atranorin, norstictic acid (major), connorstictic acid (minor or accessory); elsewhere chemistry more variable (Ahti 2000), often including psoromic acid. Habitat and ecology: on mineral to humus-rich soil, preferably calcareous, and on thin soil over rocks World distribution: Asia, Europe, North America and South America, mainly in the boreal forest region Sonoran distribution: central Arizona (Gila Co.). Notes: This species is expected to occur on base-rich soils in higher elevations in the mountains.