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Toninia opuntioides (Vill.) Timdal
Family: Ramalinaceae
[Lecidea opuntioides (Vill.) Brisson,  more]
Toninia opuntioides image
AndrĂ© Aptroot  

Global occurrence: Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Eurasia – Asia Tropical | Arctic.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | rock – calcareous, calciferous, basic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: squamulose (squamulous); thallus: cracked, fissured, fractured, rimose; [th] upper surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown); [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]:                                            (median) 4.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): contiguous, coherent (throughout the thallus); [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: bullate; [th] lower surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | white(ish).  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (median) 4.0; ascoma: sessile, superficial; [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown); [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with acuate axial body towards the apex (= Bacidia-, Buellia-, Ramalina-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] shape: elongate-fusiform, ellipsoidal-fusiform | filiform, vermiform; [asp] length [µm]: (low) 16.0 (high) 24.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 3.5 (high) 4.0; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Secondary metabolites: present, unknown/unidentified (tri-)terpenoid(s), (tri-)terpene(s).  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.