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Sporastatia testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal.
Family: Sporastatiaceae
[Acarospora testudinea (Ach.) A. Massal.,  more]
Sporastatia testudinea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: crustose, central part areolate; the marginal areoles usually elongate and distinctly radiate, bordered by a distinct black prothallus areoles: sharply angular, 0.30.5(-1) mm broad, flat or +convex, upper surface: pale yellow to usually coppery brown or sometimes gray-black or brownish black, the outer areolae paler, shiny or dull, cortex: pale gray below and pale brown above, 35-85 µm thick, covered by a thick necral layer, composed of dense hyphae with irregular cells 3-6 x 1 µm medulla: white to gray, composed of interwoven pachydermatous hyphae inspersed with granules; algal layer: +evenly distributed lower surface: black, visible as a border around the areoles Apothecia: common, initiated in the areolae but soon displacing the areolae and appearing among the areolae, immersed and level with the surface of the thallus, up to 1 mm wide disc: black, smooth or with numerous punctate fissures margin: black, thin exciple: dark brown, 20-50 µm thick, lower part sometimes pale hymenium: hyaline below, the upper 20-30 µm dark or blackish green, 85-120 µm tall, I+ dark blue, K+ blue-green or the upper part initially red-violet, N+ violet-red; paraphyses: with little gelatin, 1.7-2 µm wide below; tips: 2.5-3.5 µm wide, pale brown or pale violet; hypothecium: light gray or purplish brown to yellow-brown, 35-100 µm thick, I+ dark blue asci: broadly clavate, 60-65 x 17-22 µm; 100+-spored ascospores: broadly ellipsoid or spherical, 3-4 x 2-3 µm Pycnidia: immersed conidia: 3-4(-6) x 1-1.5 µm Spot tests: thallus, cortex and medulla K-, C+ red, P-, I- Secondary metabolites: thallus with gyrophoric acid and a trace of lecanoric acid. Substrate and ecology: on siliceous rocks in the open, in wind-swept sites, mostly on steeply inclined, exposed surfaces in alpine or subalpine habitats World distribution: widespread in mountain ranges of the Northern Hemisphere, especially in Europe and North America and extending into South America, Australia, and South Georgia Sonoran distribution: higher mountains of Arizona and southern California.
Sporastatia testudinea image
Lucy Taylor  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Troy McMullin  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
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Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
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Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
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Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
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Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
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Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image
Sporastatia testudinea image