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Usnea spp.
Family: Parmeliaceae
Usnea image
Philippe Clerc  
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: fruticose, erect, decumbent (prostrate), supendent or longly pendant, usually attached by a basal holdfast; branching isotomic- or anisotomic-dichotomous basal part: jet black to reddish-brown pigmented or concolorous with branches; continuous or with annular or longitudinal cracks branches: longitudinally cylindric, fusiform, tapered or irregular; transversally terete, flattened, striated, ridged or alate; constricted or not at attachment points; with or without annulations; divided into ±conspicuous segments which may be cylindrical, ±sausage-like or trapezoidal; with or without papillae, fibrils, tubercles, fibercles, pseudocyphellae; without true isidia soralia: present or absent; punctiform and indistinct to enlarged and conspicuous; even, excavate or stipitate; plane, convex or concave; rounded to longitudinally or transversally elliptical with or without a sharply delimited margin; crowded or widely spaced; originating initially on the cortex or on fibercles or on top of tubercles or in annular cracks between the segments Isidia: absent Isidiomorphs: absent, single or tufted cortex: radially or irregularly oriented leptodermatous or pachydermatous hyphae which are firmly or loosely conglutinated; gray to grayish-green, yellow-green when fresh, sometimes changing to brown in the herbarium; with or without red pigment; vitreous, shiny or mat medulla: lax, dense or compact, sometimes pink, red or yellow pigmented central axis: cartilaginous strand of solid, tough, compacted, prosoplectenchyma in which hyphae are conglutinated and longitudinally arranged, running throughout the thallus; fistulose and/or solid; I+ blue or I-; white, rarely brownish or yellowish photobiont: trebouxioid Ascomata: apothecial, lecanorine; lateral, subterminal or terminal; sessile to pedicellate; cup-shaped, flat or sinuose; margin: prominent, with thalloid rim and few to numerous well developed fibrils; disc: pruinose or not, pale to dark yellowish to brownish asci: lecanora-type, elongate-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 7-11 x 5-7 µm, hyaline, not amyloid Conidiomata: pycnidia, mainly terminal or subapical conidia: simple, colorless, bacilliform or bifusiform, straight or curved Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid; medulla with range of depside, depsidones, bisxanthones, terpenoids, aliphatic acids and unidentified substances Geography: widely distributed, occurring in polar zones, alpine, boreal, temperate and tropical regions Substrate: on trees, wood, or rocks. Notes: The fruticose thallus and the presence of the elastic central chord (seen by stretching a branch) readily separates Usnea from all other lichen genera. Each species of Usnea accepted here consists of a distinctive combination of morphological, anatomical and chemical characters [for discussion, see Clerc (1998)]. However, quite often one or more rarely two diagnostic characters are lacking, or are not interpretable, especially when specimens are young or growing in an extreme locality (for example with high insolation or with strong winds, or with very high humidity, etc.) or if they are infected by a lichenicolous fungus or when they are necrotic (in specimens collected on the ground). When such difficulties are encountered, chemistry should be investigated with t.l.c. and possibly specialists should be consulted.
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea aciculifera
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Image of Usnea alata
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Image of Usnea alectoroides
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Image of Usnea alisani
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea arguta
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Image of Usnea arnoldii
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Image of Usnea atlantica
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Image of Usnea caespitia
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Image of Usnea campestris
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Image of Usnea chilensis
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Image of Usnea coccinea
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Image of Usnea concinna
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Image of Usnea condensata
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Image of Usnea corrugata
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Image of Usnea crassula
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Image of Usnea creberrima
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Image of Usnea dalmatica
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea deformis
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Image of Usnea deminuta
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Image of Usnea dichroa
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Image of Usnea diplotypa
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Image of Usnea dodgeana
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Image of Usnea esthonica
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Image of Usnea eulychinae
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Image of Usnea faginea
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Usnea
Image of Usnea fallax
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Image of Usnea feeana
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Image of Usnea firma
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Image of Usnea flavescens
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Image of Usnea freyi
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Image of Usnea fusca
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Image of Usnea goniodes
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Image of Usnea gracilis
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Image of Usnea graciosa
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Image of Usnea hakonensis
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Image of Usnea helvetica
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Image of Usnea hispida
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Image of Usnea horridula
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Image of Usnea igniaria
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Image of Usnea indica
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Image of Usnea insignis
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Image of Usnea intercalaris
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Image of Usnea intricata
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea jamaicensis
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Image of Usnea jelskii
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Image of Usnea laevigata
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Image of Usnea laevis
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Image of Usnea lambii
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Image of Usnea lecanorica
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea leucostictoides
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea lunaria
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Image of Usnea maxima
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Image of Usnea mekista
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Image of Usnea microcarpa
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Image of Usnea microcarpoides
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Image of Usnea miliaria
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Image of Usnea mirabilis
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Image of Usnea misaminensis
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea montana
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Image of Usnea moreliana
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Image of Usnea myrioclada
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Image of Usnea neoguineensis
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Image of Usnea neuropogonoides
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Image of Usnea nidularis
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Image of Usnea nipparensis
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Image of Usnea obtusata
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Image of Usnea ochrophora
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Image of Usnea orientalis
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Image of Usnea pangiana
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Image of Usnea paradoxa
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Image of Usnea patagonica
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Image of Usnea pectinata
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Usnea
Image of Usnea perplexiformis
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Image of Usnea perpusilla
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Image of Usnea persoonii
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Image of Usnea peruviana
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea praelonga
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Image of Usnea primitiva
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Image of Usnea promontorii
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Image of Usnea protea
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Image of Usnea pseudoceratina
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Image of Usnea pulvinata
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Image of Usnea quasirigida
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Image of Usnea reticulata
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Image of Usnea roccellina
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Image of Usnea rohmederi
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Image of Usnea rubiginosa
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Image of Usnea rubrotincta
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Image of Usnea rugosa
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea sacbiosa
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Image of Usnea santae-annae
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea scutata
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Image of Usnea similis
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Image of Usnea societatis
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Image of Usnea solida
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Image of Usnea spilota
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea squarrosa
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Image of Usnea straminea
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Image of Usnea strigosella
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Image of Usnea subcapillaris
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Image of Usnea subcariosa
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea subhirta
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Image of Usnea sublaxa
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Image of Usnea subscabrata
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Image of Usnea superba
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Image of Usnea tanzanica
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Image of Usnea taylorii
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea thomsonii
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Image of Usnea tortuosa
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Image of Usnea trichodeoides
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Image of Usnea trullifera
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Usnea
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Usnea
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Image of Usnea vulgaris
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Image of Usnea xanthophana
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