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Parmotrema spp.
Family: Parmeliaceae
Parmotrema image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: adnate to loosely adnate, large foliose, lobate lobes: usually subirregular to irregular, sometimes imbricate; apices: typically rotund, flat (to subconvex), ciliate or not upper surface: gray or rarely yellow green, smooth, plane to rugulose, shiny or dull, sometimes white maculate, usually epruinose, epseudocyphellate, with or without soredia, isidia or pustules upper cortex: pored epicortex, palisade plechenchymatous medulla: usually white, sometimes pigmented in whole or part; cell walls: containing Cetraria-type lichenan photobiont: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent lower surface: black, broad brown (or mottled white and brown) zone peripherally, plane to sometimes wrinkled, attached by simple (rarely branched) rhizines, lacking tomentum Ascomata: apothecial, laminal, orbicular, cup-shaped, pedicellate; margin: prominent, with thalloid rim; disc: imperforate or commonly perforate; exciple: gray or hyaline; epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium hyaline asci: lecanoral, apically with thickened wall layers and divergent axial body; apex: amyloid; 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid, 8-35 x 5-18 µm (typically at the larger end of the range); wall: thick, hyaline Conidiomata: pycnidial, laminal or marginal, immersed conidia: sublageniform (3-10 x 1 µm) or filiform (8-20 x 1 µm) Secondary metabolites: some combination of orcinol depsides, orcinol depsidones, ß-orcinol depsides [and atranorin], ß-orcinol depsidones, (higher) aliphatic acids, pulvinic acid derivatives, anthraquinones, xanthones, and dibenzofurans [and usnic acids] Geography: although cosmopolitan, predominately tropical, Substrate: mostly on bark or acidic rocks, rarely on compacted soil. Notes: Until the 1970’s (Hale 1974) Parmotrema was usually treated as the section Amphigymnia of Parmelia, although it had been proposed as a separate genus over 100 years earlier. Nevertheless, it has received widespread acceptance in recent years. The circumscription given here follows Elix (1994h) and Hale, and is slightly less inclusive than the circumscription used by Krog and Swinscow (1981). Key characters for the genus include large thalli with broad, rotund lobe apices, broad naked marginal zones on the lower surface, frequent occurrence of marginal cilia, simple rhizines, thick-walled ellipsoid spores, and sublageniform or filiform conidia.
Image of Parmotrema abnuens
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Image of Parmotrema acrotrychum
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Image of Parmotrema affluens
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Image of Parmotrema argentinum
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Image of Parmotrema austrocetratum
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Image of Parmotrema balense
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Image of Parmotrema betaniae
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Image of Parmotrema blanchetiana
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Image of Parmotrema blanchetianum
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Image of Parmotrema brasiliense
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Image of Parmotrema catarinae
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Image of Parmotrema chiapense
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Image of Parmotrema concurrens
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Image of Parmotrema conjunctum
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Image of Parmotrema consors
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Image of Parmotrema cornigerum
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Image of Parmotrema cornutum
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Image of Parmotrema crassescens
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Image of Parmotrema crocoides
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Image of Parmotrema dactylosum
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Image of Parmotrema deflectens
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Image of Parmotrema enteroxanthum
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Image of Parmotrema expansum
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Image of Parmotrema fasciculatum
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Image of Parmotrema fractum
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Image of Parmotrema gloriosum
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Image of Parmotrema hawaiiense
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Image of Parmotrema herrei
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Image of Parmotrema hypomiltoides
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Image of Parmotrema incrassatum
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Image of Parmotrema judithae
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Image of Parmotrema kahuziense
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Image of Parmotrema kamatii
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Image of Parmotrema lambinonii
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Image of Parmotrema larense
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Image of Parmotrema lobulatum
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Image of Parmotrema lopezii
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Image of Parmotrema madilynae
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Image of Parmotrema masonii
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Image of Parmotrema melanochaetum
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Image of Parmotrema merrillii
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Image of Parmotrema nylanderi
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Image of Parmotrema overeemii
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Image of Parmotrema pachysporum
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Image of Parmotrema pancheri
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Image of Parmotrema permaculatum
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Image of Parmotrema pilosum
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Image of Parmotrema praeisidiosum
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Image of Parmotrema procerum
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Image of Parmotrema pseudeunetum
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Image of Parmotrema reitzii
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Image of Parmotrema ruptum
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Image of Parmotrema saccatilobum
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Image of Parmotrema saxatilis
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Image of Parmotrema schindleri
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Image of Parmotrema setchellii
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Image of Parmotrema sorediiferum
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Image of Parmotrema stuppea
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Image of Parmotrema subcompositum
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Image of Parmotrema vartakii
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Image of Parmotrema virescens
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Image of Parmotrema viridiflavum
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Image of Parmotrema wirthii
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