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Parmelia spp.
Family: Parmeliaceae
Parmelia image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: foliose, ± circular, lobate lobes: narrow, sublinear, contiguous, rarely imbricate; apices: truncate, eciliate upper surface: gray, plane to foveolate, shiny or dull, strongly white, simple or reticulate maculae, pruinose or not; with or without isidia, soralia, or lobules; pseudocyphellae common, frequently elongated and irregularly effigurate (developing from the maculae) upper cortex: non-pored epicortex, prosoplechtenchymatous medulla: white, loosely packed; cell walls containing isolichenan photobionts: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent lower surface: black, attached by simple, furcated or squarrose, black rhizines; cyphellae, pseudocyphellae and tomentum absent Ascomata: apothecial, laminal on thallus, orbicular, cup-shaped, sessile to pedicellate; margin: prominent with thalloid rim; disc: usually pale to dark brown, imperforate; exciple: gray or hyaline, epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline asci: lecanoral, wall layers thickened; apex: amyloid, with wide, divergent axial body; c. 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 11-15 x 6-9 µm but larger in many Asian species; wall thin, hyaline, not amyloid Conidiomata: absent or present, pycnidia laminal or marginal, immersed or emergent sessile conidia: cylindrical, rarely bifusiform, 5-8 x 1 µm Secondary metabolites: upper cortex atranorin and chloroatranorin (rarely usnic acid accessory); medulla some combination of orcinol depsides or depsidones, ß-orcinol depsides or depsidones or aliphatic acids Geography: predominately temperate/boreal to arctic/alpine Substrate: mostly bark, non-calciferous rock, mosses or humus.

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Image of Parmelia duplicata
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Image of Parmelia durumae
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Image of Parmelia eborina
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Image of Parmelia ebulliens
Map
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Image of Parmelia eciliata
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Image of Parmelia ectypa
Map
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Image of Parmelia ecuadoriensis
Map
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Image of Parmelia eitenii
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia elabens
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Image of Parmelia elaeodes
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Image of Parmelia encrustans
Map
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Image of Parmelia endochlora
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Image of Parmelia endoxantha
Map
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Image of Parmelia enormis
Map
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Image of Parmelia ensifolia
Map
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Image of Parmelia entotheiochroa
Map
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Image of Parmelia erhizinosa
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Image of Parmelia eruptens
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Parmelia dot map

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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia excrescens
Map
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Image of Parmelia exillima
Map
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Image of Parmelia eximia
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Image of Parmelia explanata
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Image of Parmelia exporrecta
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Image of Parmelia fahlunensis
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Image of Parmelia fatiscens
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Image of Parmelia fausta
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Image of Parmelia fecunda
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia festiva
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Image of Parmelia fibrosa
Map
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Image of Parmelia filipina
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Image of Parmelia fissicarpa
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Image of Parmelia fistulata
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Image of Parmelia flavotincta
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Image of Parmelia flavovirens
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Image of Parmelia flexilis
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Image of Parmelia fluorescens
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Image of Parmelia fracta
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Image of Parmelia frondifera
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Image of Parmelia frondosa
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Image of Parmelia fulva
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Image of Parmelia ganymedea
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Image of Parmelia geesterani
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Image of Parmelia gigas
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Image of Parmelia glaberrima
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Image of Parmelia glabratuloides
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Image of Parmelia gloriosa
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Image of Parmelia gondylophora
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia grayana
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Image of Parmelia hanningtoniana
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Image of Parmelia herrei
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Image of Parmelia heterodoxa
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Image of Parmelia hololoba
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Image of Parmelia hospitans
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Image of Parmelia hottentotta
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Image of Parmelia hubrichtii
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Image of Parmelia hygrophylla
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia hypomelaena
Map
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Image of Parmelia hyporhytida
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Image of Parmelia hypotropoides
Map
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Image of Parmelia hypotrypa
Map
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Image of Parmelia imitata
Map
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Image of Parmelia immiscens
Map
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Image of Parmelia imperfecta
Map
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Image of Parmelia imperforata
Map
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Image of Parmelia imshaugii
Map
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Image of Parmelia inconstans
Map
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Image of Parmelia incorrupta
Map
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Image of Parmelia incrustata
Map
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Image of Parmelia infausta
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia infirma
Map
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image of Parmelia inornata
Map
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Image of Parmelia insignis
Map
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Image of Parmelia intertexta
Map
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Image of Parmelia inuncta
Map
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Image of Parmelia ioannis-simae
Map
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Image of Parmelia irrugans
Map
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Image of Parmelia isidiocera
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia isidioclada
Map
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Image of Parmelia itatiayae
Map
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Image of Parmelia jacquesi
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia jamesii
Map
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Image of Parmelia japonica
Map
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Image of Parmelia kamtschadalis
Map
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Image of Parmelia kauaiensis
Map
not
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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not
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Image of Parmelia kinabalensis
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia kingii
Map
not
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not
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Image of Parmelia koflerae
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia koyaensis
Map
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Image of Parmelia laciniatula
Map
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Image of Parmelia laevigatula
Map
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Image of Parmelia laongii
Map
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image of Parmelia leiophylla
Map
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Image of Parmelia leonis
Map
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Image of Parmelia leucotyliza
Map
not
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Image
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Map
not
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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not
Available

Image
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Image of Parmelia lineariloba
Map
not
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not
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Image of Parmelia lobulascens
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia lophogena
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia lorentzii
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia loriloba
Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
not
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Image of Parmelia louisianae
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia lusitana
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia luteoviridis
Map
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Image of Parmelia maculoides
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia madagascariacea
Map
not
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Image
Not Available
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia madeirensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia magna
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia majuscula
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia malaccensis
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia malesiana
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia mannii
Map
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Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia marmariza
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia martinicana
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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Available

Image
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Available
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Available
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not
Available
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not
Available

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not
Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia mazarina
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia meiophora
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia melanochaeta
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available

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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia merrillii
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia mesogenes
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia mesotropa
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image of Parmelia meyeri
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia michoacanensis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia microblasta
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia microdactyla
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia microsticta
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

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not
Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia minima
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

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Map
not
Available
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Available
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Available
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Map
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Available

Image
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Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map

Image of Parmelia monilifera
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia mordenii
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia moreliensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
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Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Parmelia dot map

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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not
Available

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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia musculina
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia myelochroa
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia nairobiensis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nakanishii
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nakuruensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia natalensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
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not
Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia neglecta
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia neocongensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia neutralis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nicolai
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nigeriensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nigrireagens
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map

Image of Parmelia niitakana
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nilgherrensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available

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not
Available
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Available
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Available
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Available

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Available
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Available

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not
Available
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not
Available
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Available
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Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia novae-zelandiae
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia novo-mexicana
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia nyasensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia obscurascens
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia ochroglauca
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia odontata
Map
not
Available
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not
Available

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not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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Available

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Available
Image of Parmelia oostingii
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia oregana
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia orientalis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia ornatula
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia osorioi
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia osseoalbida
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available

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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia overeemii
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia pachyderma
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia pachyspora
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia pacifica
Map
not
Available

Image
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not
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not
Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia pancheri
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Parmelia dot map

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia papulosa
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia paradoxa
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia paraesquarrosa
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia paraguariensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pardii
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available

Image of Parmelia parietina
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia patula
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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Available

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Available
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Available
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not
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Image of Parmelia peralbida
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia perreticulata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

Image
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not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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not
Available

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not
Available
Image of Parmelia phaeophana
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia phlyctina
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia physodalica
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia piedmontensis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pigmentacea
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pigmentifera
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia piliferella
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia pilosella
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia piloselloides
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pindarensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia placorodia
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia planiuscula
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia plicata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia pluriformis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pokornyi
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available

Image
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not
Available
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Available
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not
Available
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not
Available

Image
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia praeinsueta
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia praesquarrosa
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia praetermissa
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia preperforata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia procera
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia prolata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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not
Available
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not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pruinata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pseudocrinita
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pseudograyana
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pseudolaevior
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pseudoshinanoana
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pseudotinctorum
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pulloides
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pulverulenta
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia punctilla
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia punicea
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pustulata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pustulescens
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia pustulifera
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia queenslandensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia quintaria
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia radians
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia ralla
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia ramosissima
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia ramuscula
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia rava
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia regnellii
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia remanens
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia rhabdiformis
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia rhododendri
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia ricasolioides
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia riograndensis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia rissoensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia rodriguesiana
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia rubifaciens
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia rudis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia russellii
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia ryssolea
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia salacinifera
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia samoënsis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia sanctae-crucis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia sancti-angelii
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia sbarbaronis
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia scabrella
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia schelpei
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia schimperi
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia schizospatha
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia schmitzii
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
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Available

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Available
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Available
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Available

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Available
Image of Parmelia scytodes
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia scytophylla
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia sectilis
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia segreganda
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia semansiana
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
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Available
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Available
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Available
Image of Parmelia setchellii
Map
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Available
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Not Available
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Available
Image of Parmelia silvestris
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia simplicior
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia simulans
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia sinensis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia singularis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia sipeana
Map
not
Available
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Not Available
Map
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Image of Parmelia soredians
Map
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Map
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Available

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Available
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Available
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Image of Parmelia soyauxii
Map
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Available

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Image of Parmelia spilota
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia spissa
Map
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Available
Image
Not Available
Map
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Available

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Available
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Map
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Available
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Parmelia dot map
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia subaurulenta
Map
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Image
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Image of Parmelia subbahiana
Map
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Image of Parmelia subcapitata
Map
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Image of Parmelia subcetrarioides
Map
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Image of Parmelia subcolorata
Map
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Image of Parmelia subcorallina
Map
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Image of Parmelia subdiffluens
Map
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Image
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Map
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Image of Parmelia subdivaricata
Map
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Available

Image of Parmelia subdomokosii
Map
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Image of Parmelia subfusca
Map
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Image of Parmelia subhosseana
Map
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Map
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Map
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Available

Image of Parmelia subincerta
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia subinflata
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia subinvoluta
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
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Available
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia sublanea
Map
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia sublimbata
Map
not
Available

Image
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Image of Parmelia submarmariza
Map
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Map
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Image of Parmelia submutata
Map
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Image of Parmelia subobscura
Map
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Image of Parmelia subplumbeata
Map
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Available

Image
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Map
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Map
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Available
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Parmelia dot map
Image of Parmelia subproboscidea
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
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Available

Image of Parmelia subpumila
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia subregressa
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia subrugata
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia subschimperi
Map
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Image of Parmelia subtestacea
Map
not
Available
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Parmelia dot map

Image
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Available
Image of Parmelia subtortula
Map
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Available
Image
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia subturgida
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia subvagans
Map
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Available

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Map
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Image of Parmelia sydneyensis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia symmiga
Map
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Image
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Map
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Map
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Available

Image
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia taitae
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia tananarivensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Available
Image
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia tartarea
Map
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Available

Image
Not Available
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia taurica
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia tegulicola
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
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Image
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Map
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Available
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Map
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Available
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Image
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Available
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Image
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia thamnidiella
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia thamnoides
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia thomsoniana
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia thryptica
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia thysanota
Map
not
Available

Image of Parmelia tinctoria
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia tortula
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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not
Available
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia trachythallina
Map
not
Available
Image
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Map
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Image
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Map
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Available
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia tropica
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia tsavoensis
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia uberrima
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image of Parmelia ulophyllodes
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available