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Parmelia spp.
Family: Parmeliaceae
Parmelia image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: foliose, ± circular, lobate lobes: narrow, sublinear, contiguous, rarely imbricate; apices: truncate, eciliate upper surface: gray, plane to foveolate, shiny or dull, strongly white, simple or reticulate maculae, pruinose or not; with or without isidia, soralia, or lobules; pseudocyphellae common, frequently elongated and irregularly effigurate (developing from the maculae) upper cortex: non-pored epicortex, prosoplechtenchymatous medulla: white, loosely packed; cell walls containing isolichenan photobionts: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent lower surface: black, attached by simple, furcated or squarrose, black rhizines; cyphellae, pseudocyphellae and tomentum absent Ascomata: apothecial, laminal on thallus, orbicular, cup-shaped, sessile to pedicellate; margin: prominent with thalloid rim; disc: usually pale to dark brown, imperforate; exciple: gray or hyaline, epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline asci: lecanoral, wall layers thickened; apex: amyloid, with wide, divergent axial body; c. 8-spored ascospores: simple, ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 11-15 x 6-9 µm but larger in many Asian species; wall thin, hyaline, not amyloid Conidiomata: absent or present, pycnidia laminal or marginal, immersed or emergent sessile conidia: cylindrical, rarely bifusiform, 5-8 x 1 µm Secondary metabolites: upper cortex atranorin and chloroatranorin (rarely usnic acid accessory); medulla some combination of orcinol depsides or depsidones, ß-orcinol depsides or depsidones or aliphatic acids Geography: predominately temperate/boreal to arctic/alpine Substrate: mostly bark, non-calciferous rock, mosses or humus.

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Image of Parmelia breviciliata
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Image of Parmelia carporrhizans
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Image of Parmelia ciliaris
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Image of Parmelia duplicata
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Image of Parmelia eciliata
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Available
Image of Parmelia ecuadoriensis
Map
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Available

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Available
Image of Parmelia elabens
Map
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Available

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Available
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Available
Image of Parmelia encrustans
Map
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Available

Image of Parmelia endochlora
Map
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Image of Parmelia endoxantha
Map
not
Available

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Not Available
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Available
Image of Parmelia ensifolia
Map
not
Available
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia entotheiochroa
Map
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Available

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Parmelia dot map

Image
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia excrescens
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Image of Parmelia fahlunensis
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia fibrosa
Map
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Not Available
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Available
Image of Parmelia filipina
Map
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Image of Parmelia fluorescens
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Image of Parmelia frondifera
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Image of Parmelia fulva
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Image of Parmelia gigas
Map
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Image of Parmelia glaberrima
Map
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Image of Parmelia gloriosa
Map
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Image of Parmelia gondylophora
Map
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia grayana
Map
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Image of Parmelia hanningtoniana
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Image of Parmelia herrei
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Image of Parmelia hottentotta
Map
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Image of Parmelia hubrichtii
Map
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Image of Parmelia hygrophylla
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image of Parmelia hypomelaena
Map
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Image of Parmelia hypotropoides
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia hypotrypa
Map
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Image of Parmelia imitata
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia immiscens
Map
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Image of Parmelia incorrupta
Map
not
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Available
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Map
not
Available
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Map
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Available

Image
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Available
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Available
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image
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Image of Parmelia intertexta
Map
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not
Available

Image of Parmelia irrugans
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia isidiocera
Map
not
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Image
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Available
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Image of Parmelia kamtschadalis
Map
not
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not
Available

Image
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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not
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not
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Image
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Image of Parmelia koyaensis
Map
not
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Map
not
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not
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not
Available

Image
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Image of Parmelia laciniatula
Map
not
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Image
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Image of Parmelia laevigatula
Map
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia leucotyliza
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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not
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Image
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Image of Parmelia lusitana
Map
not
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not
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia madagascariacea
Map
not
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Image
Not Available
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia madeirensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
not
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not
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not
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia malaccensis
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
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Map
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Image of Parmelia marmariza
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Map
not
Available
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Map
not
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Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia martinicana
Map
not
Available

Image
Not Available
Map
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Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
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Image of Parmelia mazarina
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Image of Parmelia merrillii
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Available
Image of Parmelia mesogenes
Map
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Available

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Not Available
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not
Available
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Not Available
Parmelia dot map
Image
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not
Available
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Available

Image
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Parmelia dot map
Image of Parmelia meyeri
Map
not
Available
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Available
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Available

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Available
Image of Parmelia microblasta
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Image of Parmelia microsticta
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Parmelia dot map

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Image of Parmelia moreliensis
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Parmelia dot map

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Image of Parmelia nairobiensis
Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia nakanishii
Map
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Image of Parmelia natalensis
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Parmelia dot map

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Image of Parmelia nicolai
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Parmelia dot map

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Image of Parmelia novo-mexicana
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Image of Parmelia obscurascens
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia pachyderma
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Image of Parmelia pacifica
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Parmelia dot map

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Image of Parmelia papulosa
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Image of Parmelia paraesquarrosa
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Image of Parmelia parietina
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Parmelia dot map
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia perreticulata
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Image of Parmelia phaeophana
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Image of Parmelia piedmontensis
Map
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Image of Parmelia piliferella
Map
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Image of Parmelia pilosella
Map
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image of Parmelia placorodia
Map
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Image of Parmelia plicata
Map
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Available

Image of Parmelia pluriformis
Map
not
Available
Image of Parmelia pokornyi
Map
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Image
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Image of Parmelia praesquarrosa
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Parmelia dot map

Image
Not Available
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not
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Image of Parmelia pruinata
Map
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Available
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image
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Image of Parmelia pseudocrinita
Map
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image of Parmelia pseudolaevior
Map
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Image
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Parmelia dot map
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Image of Parmelia pseudoshinanoana
Map
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Image
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not
Available
Image of Parmelia pseudotinctorum
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
Parmelia dot map

Image
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Image of Parmelia pulverulenta
Map
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Image
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Available

Image of Parmelia punicea
Map
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Image
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Parmelia dot map
Image
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Image
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Map
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Image of Parmelia russellii
Map
not
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Image
Not Available
Map
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Available

Image of Parmelia ryssolea
Map
not
Available
Image
Not Available
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not
Available
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Available
Image of Parmelia salacinifera
Map
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Image
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Image of Parmelia sancti-angelii
Map
not
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Available
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Image
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Map
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Available
Image of Parmelia sbarbaronis
Map
not
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Image of Parmelia scabrella
Map
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Image of Parmelia simulans
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Image of Parmelia soredians
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Image of Parmelia spissa
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Image of Parmelia subaurulenta
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Image of Parmelia ulophyllodes
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Image of Parmelia varia
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Image of Parmelia vermicularis
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Image of Parmelia versicolor
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Image of Parmelia virginica
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Image of Parmelia vitellina
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Image of Parmelia warmingii
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Image of Parmelia willisii
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Parmelia dot map