Life Habit: lichenized Thallus: subcrustose to squamulose, resting on a thin blackish hypothallus upper surface: usually olivaceous to brownish photobiont: primary one a Nostoc, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: apothecial, with or without a thalline margin; hymenium: hemiamyloid, I+ blue-green, turning red-brown asci: with an amyloid apical plug [tubes in subg. Fuscopannaria or sheets in subg. Micropannaria], 8-spored ascospores: simple, hyaline, usually ellipsoid, sometimes with distinct epispore with apical thickenings or 'tails' Conidiomata: pycnidial, pale brown conidia: simple, bacilliform, colorless Secondary metabolites: sometimes with atranorin and/or aliphatic acids and terpenoids, or no substances Geography: widespread in temperate, forested habitats, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere and with a center of distribution along the Pacific coast of North America Substrate: on soil, rocks and bark. Notes: This is a difficult genus where the species tend to be superficially very similar, and microscopic studies are often necessary for definite identification. Particularly in the field, they may be difficult to distinguish from Parmeliella species which also has small-squamulose species, most of which are gray-blue with thinner, smoother thallus. Apothecia of Parmeliella invariably lack a thalline margin and have an amyloid hymenium, as well as asci with amyloid apical tubes. On the basis of ascal characters, Fuscopannaria is closer to Psoroma than Pannaria or Parmeliella.