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Cladonia spp.
Family: Cladoniaceae
Cladonia image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: composed of primary (basal, horizontal) and secondary (erect) parts cortex: dense, composed of ± vertically-oriented hyphae medulla: usually 2-layered; the outer layer: white, composed of ± loose hyphae, containing algal glomerules; the inner layer: hyaline or white, cartilaginous, with conglutinate hyphae surrounding the central canal Primary thallus: composed of basal squamules, closely adpressed to the substrate, or ascending to erect, rounded to elongate, entire or variously indented, sorediate or esorediate, sometimes persistent, occasionally dominant upper surface: corticated lower surface: composed of ecorticate layer of hyphae, hyphae roughly parallel-oriented, radiating in a flabelliform pattern from the basal portio, which is generally attached to the substrate Secondary thallus: consisting of hollow to rarely solid podetia, growing from upper surface or margins of primary thallus, blunt, pointed, or cup-forming, simple or branched; branch axils: closed or perforate; perforations: occasionally enlarging (forming funnel-like structures often called "open cups") and deforming surface: variably corticate to ecorticate, generally composed of some combination of continuous cortex, cortical granules, verruculae, soredia, and squamules photobiont: primary one a Trebouxia, secondary photobiont absent Ascomata: lecideine apothecia, borne at apices of podetia, on cup rims, at branch apices, or rarely sessile on basal squamules; discs: red, pale or dark brown, darkening with age and sometimes blackening asci: cylindrical to elongate-clavate; apex: Porpidia type, with strongly amyloid (I+ blue) apical dome, including very narrow weakly amyloid central zone surrounded by a tube-like, strongly amyloid zone; wall: nonamyloid except for outer layer; 8-spored ascospores: biseriate, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, simple to rarely one-septate, hyaline, oblong or ovoid, 6-16 (-24) x 2-6 micro meter Conidiomata: pycnidial, borne at apices of podetia, on cup rims, at branch apices, or on basal squamules, infrequently arising laterally on podetia, red, brown or carbonaceous to blue-black, cylindrical to urn-like (ampullaceous), short-stalked or sessile, often constricted at base; containing hyaline or red gelatin conidia: sickle-shaped, rarely straight, hyaline, 3-10 (-14) x 0.5-1 micro meter Secondary metabolites: depsides, depsidones, dibenzofurans and derivatives (incl. usnic acids), terpenoids, aliphatic acids, and quinone pigments Geography: arctic regions to Antarctica, tundra to tropical forests but widely absent from arid regions Substrate: on soil, especially acidic humus and sand, rotting wood, tree bases and trunks, mossy or bare rocks. Notes: It is characterized by punctiform pseudocyphellae on upper surface, perforate apothecia with large, ellipsoid spores, and bifusiform conidia.
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Image of Cladonia adspersa
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Image of Cladonia agariciformis
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Image of Cladonia aleurophylla
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Image of Cladonia angustata
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Image of Cladonia azorica
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Image of Cladonia blakei
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Image of Cladonia candelabrum
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Image of Cladonia carneopallida
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Image of Cladonia centrophora
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Image of Cladonia ceranoides
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Image of Cladonia cerasphora
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Image of Cladonia clathrata
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Image of Cladonia coilophylla
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Image of Cladonia colombiana
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Image of Cladonia condensata
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Image of Cladonia connexa
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Image of Cladonia consimilis
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Image of Cladonia coralloidea
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Image of Cladonia curta
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Image of Cladonia cyanescens
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Image of Cladonia destricta
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Image of Cladonia dilacerata
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Image of Cladonia diplotypa
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Image of Cladonia dissecta
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Image of Cladonia divaricata
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Image of Cladonia endiviaefolia
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Image of Cladonia endoxantha
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Image of Cladonia epiphylla
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Image of Cladonia exasperatula
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Image of Cladonia extensa
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Image of Cladonia extracorticata
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Image of Cladonia fauriei
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Image of Cladonia fissidens
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Image of Cladonia flabelliformis
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Image of Cladonia friabilis
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Image of Cladonia georgiana
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Image of Cladonia glacialis
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Image of Cladonia gorgonea
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Image of Cladonia heteroclada
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Image of Cladonia hitatiensis
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Image of Cladonia imbricaria
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Image of Cladonia imshaugii
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Image of Cladonia insignis
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Image of Cladonia itatiaiae
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Image of Cladonia koyaensis
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Image of Cladonia krempelhuberi
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Image of Cladonia lacryma
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Image of Cladonia latiloba
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Image of Cladonia leprocephala
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Image of Cladonia leptothallina
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Image of Cladonia luzonensis
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Image of Cladonia macaronesica
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Image of Cladonia macrophylliza
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Image of Cladonia melanopoda
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Image of Cladonia meridionalis
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Image of Cladonia merrillii
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Image of Cladonia metaminiata
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Image of Cladonia microphylla
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Image of Cladonia microphylliza
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Image of Cladonia muricata
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Image of Cladonia nanodes
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Image of Cladonia neocaledonica
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Image of Cladonia ochracea
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Image of Cladonia oxneri
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Image of Cladonia palamaea
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Image of Cladonia paludicola
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Image of Cladonia papuana
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Image of Cladonia patagonica
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Image of Cladonia perfilata
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Image of Cladonia perrieri
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Image of Cladonia pileolata
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Image of Cladonia pityreoidea
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Image of Cladonia plombii
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Image of Cladonia poeciloclada
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Image of Cladonia polymorpha
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Image of Cladonia polyscypha
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Image of Cladonia polystomata
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Image of Cladonia pseudodidyma
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Image of Cladonia pseudosipeana
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Image of Cladonia pyxioides
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Image of Cladonia rhodoleuca
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Image of Cladonia rotundata
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Image of Cladonia schizopora
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Image of Cladonia scholanderi
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Image of Cladonia shikokiana
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Image of Cladonia sipeana
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Image of Cladonia sphacelata
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Image of Cladonia squamulosa
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Image of Cladonia stellata
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Image of Cladonia stereoclada
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Image of Cladonia subconistea
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Image of Cladonia subcorallifera
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Image of Cladonia subdigitata
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Image of Cladonia subminiata
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Image of Cladonia symphoriza
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Image of Cladonia taurica
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Image of Cladonia testaceopallens
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Image of Cladonia vermicularis
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Image of Cladonia vicaria
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