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Glyphis spp.
Family: Graphidaceae
Project: North America
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: crustose, continuous or slightly rimose surface: variable, pale yellow, ochre or pale brown, smooth, waxy, rarely white or cream-colored, without soralia or isidia cortex: mostly well developed and consisting of whitish to yellowish periclinal hyphae medulla: sometimes with large crystals photobiont: primary one a Trentepohlia green alga, secondary one absent Ascomata: apothecial, lirellate or ħrounded, in some species embedded in carbonized stromata with white or pale brown surface, ascocarps or stromata usually distinctly raised disc: with conspicuous brownish granular surface, widely open (only in G. substriatula narrow and slit-like) margin: usually present but often inconspicuous, excipular lips black, entire (crenate only in Glyphis substriatula) exciple: completely carbonized, the excipular base may be poorly developed or not carbonized (in species belonging to subgenus Pallidoglyphis), excipular lips (labia) usually entire (slightly crenate only in Glyphis substriatula), outside often with crystals embedded hymenium: not inspersed, gelatinous, often I+ pale violet or grayish blue paraphyses: parallel, the outer wall layers swollen, often anastomosing, tips brown-granular asci: clavate, I-, apex thickened with ħdistinct ocular chamber ('Graphis-type'), 2-8-spored ascospores: hyaline (old or ħdegenerated spores may be pale brown as well), transversely septate or muriform, oblong or oval, often with ħdistinct halo, I+ blue-violet Conidiomata and conidia: not seen Secondary metabolites: none detected Geography: tropical to subtropical Substrate: bark, very seldom on leaves (only Notes: Glyphis is characterized by a carbonized exciple, brownish granular discs, hyaline ascospores and a special paraphyses-type (parallel but often anastomosing with ħswollen outer wall layers and brown-granular tips). Glyphis is a synonym of Gyrostomum Fr.
Species
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