Life habit: lichenicolous, non-lichenized Hyphal strands: absent (subgenus Lichenostigma) or connected to the ascomata, superficial, formed by a single row of cells or plurihyphal (stromatic), branched or not (subgenus Lichenogramma) Ascomata: black, superficial, cushion-like, globose, elongate or irregular, scattered or confluent, connected or not to brown superficial hyphal strands ternal structure: paraplectenchymatous, stromatic, with ±spherical hyphal cells; interascal filaments: lacking, in terascal space: filled with ±spherical cells centrum: I- or I+ blue or red, K/I- or K/I+ blue asci: ±globose, broadly obovate or broadly clavate, fissitunicate, arising within the pseudoparenchyma of the stromatic ascomata, sometimes K/I+ bluish around the apex of the ocular chamber, Arthonia-type, 4- to 8-spored ascospores: hyaline or brown, 1-septate or submuriform, ellipsoid or obovate, with or without a visible halo, ornamented or not Anamorph: probably a conidial fungus with small bacilliform conidia Geography: world-wide Substrate: thallus and apothecia of lichens. Notes: In addition to the Lichenostigma species treated here, several specimens of species not described so far have been examined. That material was sterile or poorly developed, not allowing a formal description. Consequently, an increase in the number of species of this genus for the region is expected in the future. Lichenothelia species have similar stromatic ascomata, but mainly differ in asci produced in a hymenium-like layer and in the presence of interascal filaments.