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Polycauliona verruculifera (Vainio) Arup, Frödén & Søchting
Family: Teloschistaceae
[Caloplaca verruculifera (Vainio) Zahlbr.,  more]
Polycauliona verruculifera image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts) thallus: placodioid-crustose, placodioid-foliose thallus: granular, granulose, granulate | compartimentized – areolate, squamulate [th] upper surface: yellow(ish) (if dull: buff) | red(dish) yellow (orange, orange yellow) [th upper surface]: epruinose [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: present [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 0.3 (high) 0.8 (max) 1.0 [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, squamules): discontiguous, dispersed (towards thallus periphery) | discontiguous, dispersed (throughout the thallus) [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: granulose, granular | verrucose, warted | pseudocyphellate, with pseudocyphellae [th] lower surface: yellow(ish) red (orange red) [th lower surface] specific structures: absent ascomata: absent | present ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.5 (high) 1.2 ascoma: sessile, superficial [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: concave | plane, flat, flattened, expanded | subconvex, slightly convex | convex [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: red(dish) yellow (orange, orange yellow) | yellow(ish) red (orange red) [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose [ascm, if apoth] margin surface; [if perith] periostiolar area, ostiole, involucrellum: red(dish) yellow (orange, orange yellow) [ascm, if apoth] margin excipular photobionts: present | sparse [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: hyaline, colourless [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present [ascm] paraphyses/-oid cells width [µm]: (low) 1.0 (high) 2.0 [ascm] paraphyses/-oid apical cells width [µm]: (low) 3.0 (high) 6.0 (max) 8.0 [ascm] epihymenium, epithecium: yellow(ish) (if dull: buff) | brown(ish) yellow (ochraceous, ochre) asci: lecanoralean [asc] tholus: thickened [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: entirely amyloid (= Catillaria-, Teloschistes-types etc) ascospores: (median) 8.0 [asp] shape: ellipsoidal | narrowly ellipsoidal [asp] length [µm]: (min) 9.0 (low) 11.0 (high) 14.0 (max) 15.0 [asp] width [µm]: (min) 4.2 (low) 4.5 (high) 6.0 (max) 6.6 [asp] septa: absent | present – spore lumen bilocular, polarilocular, plurilocular [asp] septa: transversely septate [asp] transversal septa: (median) 1.0 [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent conidiomata: absent | present conidia: ellipsoidal | bacilliform, bacillar [co] length [µm]: (min) 2.5 (low) 3.0 (high) 3.6 (max) 4.0 secondary metabolites: present secondary metabolites: emodin | fallacinal | parietin | parietinic acid | teloschistin primary photobiont: present secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent primary photobiont: chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.

substrate: wood – dead, living | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic | rock – calcareous, calciferous, basic | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.