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Pyrrhospora quernea (Dickson) Korber (redirected from: Protoblastenia querna)
Family: Psoraceae
[Biatora quernea (Dicks.) Fr.,  more]
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: crustose, episubstratal, indeterminate, irregularly spreading, up to a few cm in diam., thin and continuous to thick and warty, uneven; prothallus: generally present but mostly indistinct, forming a delimiting black line up to 250 µm wide, visible when abutting adjacent lichen thalli granules: up to c. 150 µm wide, arising over surface of thallus, even, often indistinctly areolate, rarely with esorediate areoles up to 0.l1 mm in diam., soon becoming completely dissolved in soredia surface: straw colored to dull sulfur yellow or yellowish fawn (in shade greenish yellow), sometimes with reddish brown tint, often entirely dissolved into a mealy sorediose crust soredia: pale yellow, usually with a yellowish brown tone, farinose to granular, diffuse, soon becoming confluent, forming a +thick leprose sorediate crust which may crack and form +angular portions, 1-2 mm across, in rounded consoredia up to 50 µm in diam. medulla: indistinct or absent; photobiont: green, coccoid, up to 12 µm in diam. Apothecia: often absent but when present not rare, 0.3-1(-1.5) mm in diam. disc: dark red-brown or rusty-red, sometimes blackening, becoming strongly convex, often irregular in shape margin: entire or undulate, soon excluded epihymenium: inspersed with reddish brown granules, K+ dissolving, purple hymenium: hyaline, c. 50 µm tall, I+ blue asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, short ellipsoid to ellipsoid, (7-)8-12(-14) x (5-)6-7(-8) µm Pycnidia: not found Spot tests: thallus K+ yellow (difficult to see against a yellow thallus), P- or weakly yellow, C+ and KC+ orange-red, UV+ orange or red Secondary metabolites: thallus of two chemotypes (J.A. Elix, personal communication): I. with 6-O-methylarthothelin (major), arthothelin (major), thiophanic acid (minor), thiophaninic acid (minor), 2,4-dichloronorlichexanthone (minor), 7chloroemodin (minor = orange pigment), atranorin (trace) and 4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone (trace); II. thuringione (major), arthothelin (major), thiophanic acid (minor), 2,4-dichloro-3-O-methylnorlichexanthone acid (minor), 2,4-dichloronorlichexanthone (minor), 7-chloroemodin (minor = orange pigment), atranorin (trace), 4,5-dichloro3-O-methylnorlichexanthone (trace) and 4,5-dichloronorlichexanthone (trace). Substrate and ecology: usually on acidic to intermediate, moderately nutrient-rich, rough bark (especially Quercus; also on Pinus, Prunus, Sambucus, Olea, Heteromeles, Artemisia), occasionally on wood, very rarely on sandstone rocks; mostly in open, well lit situations, in humid, warm, low elevation areas, including pine woodlands, pine-oak chaparral, oak woodlands, and coastal sage communities World distribution: oceanic regions of Europe, Macaronesia, China; Japan, and western North America Sonoran distribution: coastal, southern California, Baja California and Baja California Sur at 20-440 m. Notes: Pyrrhospora quernea is characterized by a leprose, pale yellow to yellowish fawn thallus with diffuse soredia, the presence of arthothelin, plus either 6-O-methylarthothelin or thuringione, as major metabolites, and the absence of phenolic carboxylic acid derivatives. When fertile it is easily recognized by its small dark red-brown apothecia. When sterile, it can be confused with various other sterile lichens. Lecanora expallens is thinner and less uniformly sorediate and has a much more distinctly yellowish green thallus (lacking a fawn tint) and lacks a distinct black prothallus; its thallus contains usnic acid and zeorin in addition to thiophanic acid as major constituents, plus unknown substances.
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pyrrhospora quernea image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Pyrrhospora quernea image
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