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Hypogymnia fistulosa McCune & Krog
Family: Parmeliaceae
Hypogymnia fistulosa image

Global occurrence: Americas – North America (incl Mexico).  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | rock – siliceous, siliciferous, acidic.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like; [th] upper surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | green(ish) grey; [th upper surface]: epruinose; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: present; [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: present; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 0.3 (high) 1.5 (max) 2.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane | rugose, plicate, folded, pustulate, faveolate, wrinkled; [th] lower surface: black(ish); [th lower surface] specific structures: absent.  Ascomata: absent.  Secondary metabolites: present, atranorin | physodic acid | 3-hydroxyphysodic acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.