Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, continuous or ±rimose surface: cream-colored, yellowish, pale gray or greenish gray, dull, sometimes mealy, slightly uneven or rugose, without soralia and isidia Apothecia: flush with thallus or little raised, lirellate lirellae: short or oblong, branched, slightly curved, 0.5-3 x 0.3-0.5 mm disc: open, dark brown, with whitish pruina margin: excipular lips absent or inconspicuous; thalline margin thin, entire, in young ascocarps (young parts of the ascocarps) jutting over the disc, in older ascocarps often inconspicuous exciple: brown (to slightly carbonized) basally and laterally, but not distinctly developed epihymenium: brown, 5-15 µm thick hymenium: hyaline, inspersed, 80-120 µm tall, I- paraphyses: c. 1.5 µm thick, with brownish, sparsely branched tips subhymenium: hyaline, c. 10 µm thick asci: 80 x 15-20 µm, 8-spored ascospores: brown, transversely septate, 6-10-locular, 25-45 x 7-9 µm, I+ red or reddish brown Pycnidia and conidia: not found Spot tests: cortex and medulla K+ red, C-, KC-, P+ yellow Secondary metabolites: norstictic and connorstictic acids. Substrate and ecology: on bark World distribution: western Europe as well as tropical to subtropical regions of the New and the Old World Sonoran distribution: southern California.