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Cladonia subradiata (Vainio) Sandst. (redirected from: Cladonia balfourii f. subprolifera)
Family: Cladoniaceae
[Cladonia balfourii Cromb.,  more]
Cladonia subradiata image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Primary thallus: squamulose, persistent to evanescent; squamules: 2-4 x 1-2 mm, crenulate to laciniate, esorediate to granular below and at margins podetia: whitish gray, 0.8-3 cm long, 0.4-1 mm thick, unbranched or sparingly branched; tips: blunt to acute in young podetia, mature podetia forming cups; cups: 0.6-3 (-4) mm wide, shallow, producing hymenium-tipped prolixferations along margins, occasionally deformed and laterally flattened surface: thinly corticate at base, sorediate (but mostly covered by soredioid or isidioid structures) inside cups and below hymenial discs, also with slightly elongated, tiny (or larger) microsquamules (0.1-0.2 mm long) and granules towards base Apothecia: uncommon, dark brown (but the more frequent primordia pale brown), 2-3 mm wide ascospores: fusiform, 10-12 x 2 micro meter Pycnidia: common, either on young basal squamules or at tips of podetia, bell-shaped to pyriform, strongly constricted at base, with hyaline gelatin conidia: 7-10 x 1 ┬Ám Spot tests: K-, C-, KC-, P+ red, UV- Secondary metabolites: fumarprotocetraric acid and accessory convirensic acid. Habitat and ecology: on rotten wood and earth banks, in tropical to warm-temperate regions World distribution: Africa, Asia, Australasia, North America and South America Sonoran distribution: Chihuahua and Sinaloa. Notes: Cladonia subradiata is one of the most widespread species of Cladonia in the American tropics and subtropics (Ahti 2000), and it is common in Mexico south of the study area. The northern limit is not well known and the specimens from California could not be identified with certainty. It is very similar to C. coniocraea but is whitish and the soredia are loosely attached, isidioid, especially on the basal parts of the podetia.