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Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm.
Family: Cladoniaceae
[Cladonia klementii Oxner,  more]
Cladonia rangiformis image

Global occurrence: Africa (incl Madagascar) | Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Americas – South and Central America | Eurasia – Asia Tropical | Arctic.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: squamulose (squamulous) | fruticose (fruticous), shrub-like, beard-like; continuous, diffuse, effuse | compartimentized – areolate, squamulate; [th] upper surface: grey(ish) green | grey(ish) white; [th upper surface]: epruinose; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: smooth, plane; [th] morphol substructures (eg lobes, branches): isotomic-dichotomous | irregular.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma: pedicellate, stipitate, pedunculate, stalked; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon); [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: with amyloid tube, ring (= Collema-, Micarea-, Porpidia-, Psora-types etc).  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Conidiomata: absent | present; [co] length [µm]: (low) 5.0 (high) 14.0.  Secondary metabolites: present, atranorin | fumarprotocetraric acid | rangiformic acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.