Habit: lichenized Thallus: squamulose, adpressed to prostrate squamules: incised to crenate, convex, scattered to barely imbricate, c. 0.8 mm wide, with a gelatinous epicortex 2-20(-50) Ám thick surface: brownish yellow, smooth, shiny, waxy upper cortex: pseudoparenchymatous, 25-60 Ám thick, composed of gelatinous hyphae with ▒isodiametric cells 6-11 Ám wide lower cortex: lacking or indistinctly pseudocorticate and up to 20 Ám thick Apothecia: lecanorine, rounded, 0.4-0.9(-1) mm wide disc: orange-yellow, plane; margin: persistent or partially excluded, ▒crenate exciple: fairly indistinct, up to 55 Ám wide, composed of gelatininous hyphae with ▒rectangular cells internally epihymenium: reddish yellow to yellow-brown hymenium: hyaline, 55-65(-75) Ám tall; paraphyses: mostly simple but sometimes branched apically, 1.5-2 Ám wide medially, with tips expanded up to 4(-5) Ám asci: narrowly clavate, 41-53 x 12-15 Ám, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple to rarely 1-septate, narrowly ellipsoid, straight, (13-)14-17(-18.5) x (3.5-)4-5(-5.5) Ám Pycnidia: rare, immersed, appearing as darker yellow pits on thallus surface conidia: narrowly ellipsoid to oblong, 3-5 x c. 1.5 Ám Spot tests: K+ pale red, KC-, C- Secondary metabolites: not studied but inferred to be pulvinic acid and related secondary metabolites. Substrate and ecology: on calcareous sandstone and limestone in dry, open habitats World distribution: China and central Asia and western North America Sonoran distribution: southeastern Arizona. Notes: With its thick, pseudoparenchymatous cortex, gelatinous epicortex and cortical pigment pattern, C. kansuensis in similar to Placomaronea (Vol. II, p. 418), but it has 8 spores/ascus instead of 32 or more per ascus in the latter genus. The cortical pigments are conspicuously arranged as "hoods" within the outermost cortical cells.