Rajvanshi, F., L.L. St. Clair, B.L. Webb, and C.C. Newberry (1998)
Thallus chalky-white to ashy gray, crustose, adhering tightly to the soil, thick, areolate throughout. Hypothallus not seen. Areoles verruciform to bullate to irregularly expanded upwards and outwards, tightly heaped together, apically swelling, the cortex thickly pruinose, mealy to crumbly rough, occasionally excavated. Apothecia lecanorine. Margin concolorous with thallus, thickly pruinose, soon becoming sinuous. Disk fuliginose, weakly pruinose, at first flat to scarcely convex, soon often distinctly convex; when old, often cratered or fissured, with white hyphae erupting through. Hypothecium colorless; hymenium hyaline, ca. 80-90 pm high; epithecium yellow-brown; paraphyses septate, branching, occasionally anastomosing, 3-4 um wide, proximally straight, distally moniliform-swelling; asci clavate, 60-70 x 15 um at the widest, the apical apparatus of the Bacidia-type; spores 8, hyaline, nonspetate, broadly elliptical, 10-14 x 8-10 um. Cortex containing norstictic acid. On gypsiferous soil, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A.
Type: U.S.A., Utah, Emery County, San Rafael Anticline, 8 km north of Wedge Overlook, alt. 1798 m, 3 September 1993. St. Clair 4829 (holotype, BRY C28022; isotypes, COLO, MIN, US, WIS).
Distribution: U.S.A., Emery County, common on gypsiferous soil derived from the Carmel Formation.
Rajvanshi, F., L.L. St. Clair, B.L. Webb, and C.C. Newberry. 1998. The terricolous lichen flora of the San Rafael Swell, Emery County, Utah, U.S.A. pp. 399-406 in: Glenn, M., M. Cole, R. Dirig & R. Harris (eds.) Lichenographia Thomsoniana: North American Lichenology in Honor of John W. Thomson. Mycotaxon, LTD, Ithaca, NY.