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Biatora fallax Hepp
Family: Ramalinaceae
Biatora fallax image

Global occurrence: Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico).  Substrate: bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | lichens, lichenized fungi | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: crustose (crustaceous) – episubstratal – unspecified | squamulose (squamulous), continuous, diffuse, effuse; [th] upper surface: green(ish) | grey(ish) green | brown(ish) yellow (ochraceous, ochre) | grey(ish) brown; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent | present; [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent | present; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 0.1 (high) 0.2 (max) 0.3; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface: verruculose, minutely warted | subsquamulose.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (low) 0.4 (high) 0.6 (max) 1.2; ascoma: sessile, superficial; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: subconvex, slightly convex | convex | distinctly convex; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose; [ascm, if apoth] subhymenial layers, hypothecium; [if perith] basal excipulum: hyaline, colourless | yellow(ish) brown; [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present; [ascm] epihymenium, epithecium: hyaline, colourless | yellow(ish) brown.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): present; [asc] tholus amyloidity pattern: amyloid with acuate axial body towards the apex (= Bacidia-, Buellia-, Ramalina-types etc). Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] shape: ellipsoidal; [asp] length [µm]: (min) 8.5 (low) 10.8 (high) 13.9 (max) 19.5; [asp] width [µm]: (min) 3.0 (low) 3.7 (high) 4.5 (max) 5.5; [asp] septa: absent – spore lumen unilocular, monolocular | present, transversely septate; [asp] transversal septa: (low) 0.0 (high) 1.0 (max) 2.0; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Secondary metabolites: present, argopsin | gyrophoric acid.  Primary photobiont: present, chlorophytaceous – trebouxiaceous, chlorococcoid.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.