Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: discontinuous, mostly immersed in the substrate upper surface: gray, smooth; photobiont: absent Perithecia: hemispherical, black, superficial on the thallus, 0.2-0.4 mm diam. ascomatal wall: black, absent below the hamathecium hamathecium: mostly unbranched pseudoparaphyses, branched above the asci; filaments: c. 3 µm wide below, smaller above, not inspersed with oil droplets asci: cylindrical, c. 50 x 10 µm, with 8, irregularly arranged ascospores ascospores: hyaline, clavate, 1-septate with a submedian euseptum, 16-20 x 6-7 µm; walls: not ornamented, without a gelatinous sheath Spot tests: all negative, UV negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Substrate and ecology: on bark of Rhus diversiloba World distribution: northern temperate or possibly nearly cosmopolitan Sonoran distribution: only found once on the Channel Islands of southern California.