Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; episubstratic; substrate non-calciferous or metalliferous. Thallus: Areolate (primarily areolate), continuous throughout, dispersed along the periphery, continuous in the centre, or dispersed throughout and distinctly seperate; lobes angular or rounded at the front; separate thallus parts.15-.4 mm thick. Thallus Size and Differentiation: Large; main branches basally not constricted. Thallus Outline: Margin concolorous the thallus centre. Upper Surface: Brown, plane; not sorediate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Upper Cortex: Epicortex present. Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution positive. Ascocarps: Forming on the pro- or hypothallus, rarely soon sessile, not constricted to slightly constricted at the base, 5-100 per cm², .5-.9-(2) mm in diam.. Margin: Not flexuose, persistent to excluded, 45-90 µm wide, epruinose. Disk: Plane to weakly convex to strongly convex, black, epruinose, without an umbo. Exciple: Hyphae radiating outwards; 3.5-5 µm wide; grey; not inspersed with crystals to inspersed with crystals. Epithecium: Apical cells olive to green to turquoise, cell pigment reacting with 10% HCl (in H2O), cell pigment HCl+ blue. Hymenium: 53-84 µm high; white; iodine reaction: Lugol’s positive. Subhymenium: 17-40 µm high; white. Hypothecium: Brown. Ascospores: Oblong, (7)-9.2-16.2-(19) µm long, (4.8)-5.4-7.8-(8.5) µm wide; wall not ornamented. Conidia: (7)-8.8-12.6-(17) µm long. Secondary Metabolites: Present, stictic acid. Spot Tests: Medulla: K – to + yellow, C –, PD – to + orange; ascocarp margin (in section): K – to + deep yellow, C – disk: C – hypothecium: K – epihymenium: K –.