Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Squamules: up to 2 (-3) mm diam.; epithecium brown, sometimes with a faintly green tinge orange pigment: (K+ red) present in the upper part of the hypothecium and inside the lumina of many paraphyses, asci, and spores ascospores: narrowly ellipsoid to fusiform, mainly 1-septate, 12.5-19 x 3.5-5.5 µm Secondary metabolites: terpenoids (chemotype 4). Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and sandstone at 1650-2160 m World distribution: widely distributed in arid areas in the arctic and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Peru Sonoran distribution: rare in northern Arizona (open circle).