Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
upper surface: dark olivaceous brown Squamules: up to 3 mm diam., adjacent or forming a ± continuous crust, weakly to moderately convex ascospores: bacilliform to acicular, 3- to 7 (-9) septate, 20-42 x 3-4 µm. Host: cyanolichens Substrate and ecology: on soil and rock, mainly among mosses or in rock fissures, in open habitats and woodlands, up to 2470 m World distribution: see species Sonoran distribution: rather common in Arizona, California, Baja California and Baja California Sur.