Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Life habit: lichenized Thallus: foliose, continuous with margin rounded or lobate, 3-10 cm wide, loosely adnate lobes: irregular, broadly elongate, marginally entire or crenulate, often folded; lobe tips usually subrotund to rotund, often ascending, eciliate but with numerous white hairs upper surface: dark greenish black, covered with scattered, white hairs, epruinose; lacking soredia or isidia upper cortex: multilayered, paraplectenchymatous, 10-30 micrometer thick cortex: multilayered, paraplectenchymatous, 20-40 micrometer thick medulla: white or yellow, loose hyphae, 40-260 micrometer thick photobionts: primary one a cyanobacterium (Scytonema), secondary photobiont absent lower surface: dark greenish black, glabrous, rhizinate; rhizines: fasciculate; cyphellae and pseudocyphellae absent Ascomata: apothecial, up to 1.2 mm wide, sessile, laminal on the upper surface, orbicular, cup-shaped; margin: paraplectenchymatous; disc: reddish brown, flat anatomy: exciple: hyaline or light brown, 20-30 micrometer thick, epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hymenium: colorless, 60-90 micrometer tall; paraphyses: ± branched, septate, apically capitate; hypothecium: hyaline asci: clavate, 8-spored Conidiomata: pycnidial, marginal, semi-immersed, punctiform, ostiole dark conidia: bacilliform, 9-16 x 1 micrometer Spot tests: all negative Secondary metabolites: none detected. Habitat and ecology: on rocks and soil among mosses in moist habitats World distribution: rare in northern Europe and western North America, especially in California Sonoran distribution: scattered locations in Arizona, southern California and Baja California (Guadalupe Island).