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Nephroma laevigatum Ach.
Family: Nephromataceae
[Nephroma hibernicum Nyl. ex Leight.,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  

Global occurrence: Africa (incl Madagascar) | Eurasia – Asia Extratropical | Eurasia – Europe | Americas – North America (incl Mexico) | Arctic.  Substrate: soil, clay, humus, turf, detritus, dead leaves | bryophytes – mosses, liverworts | bark, cork, plant surface – trunks, branches, twigs | rock, stones, pebbles – unspecified.  Life habit: lichenized (mutualistic with algal photobionts).  Thallus: foliose (foliaceous), leaf-like; [th] upper surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) grey | grey(ish) brown; [th upper surface]: epruinose; [th marginal and upper surface] specific structures: absent | present; [th margin] cilia, cilioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] isidia, isidioid structures: absent; [th upper surface] soredia, soralia, soralioid structures: absent; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) width [mm]: (low) 2.0 (high) 5.0 (max) 10.0; [th] morphol substructures (eg areoles, lobes, branches) upper surface smooth, plane | uneven, undulate; [th] lower surface: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | white(ish) | brown(ish) black; [th lower surface] specific structures: absent | present; [th lower surface] rhizines, rhizoid structures: absent.  Ascomata: absent | present; ascoma: apothecial, apothecioid – hymenial; ascoma [mm]: (min) 2.0 (low) 4.0 (high) 7.0 (max) 10.0; ascoma: subsessile, subimmersed, adnate, semi-immersed, emergent | sessile, superficial; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: concave | plane, flat, flattened, expanded; [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: brown(ish) (if pale: fawn, tan; if mid: cinnamon) | brown(ish) black | red(dish) brown (if pale: orange brown); [ascm, if apoth] disc, mazaedium: epruinose; [ascm] paraphyses/-oids: present.  Asci: lecanoralean; [asc] tholus: thickened; [asc] tholus amyloidity (iodine reaction): absent.  Ascospores: (median) 8.0; [asp] shape: fusiform; [asp] length [µm]: (low) 17.0 (high) 20.0; [asp] width [µm]: (low) 5.0 (high) 7.0; [asp] septa: present, transversely septate; [asp] transversal septa: (median) 3.0; [asp] pigmentation: hyaline, colourless; [asp] perispore, epispore: not apparent.  Conidiomata: absent | present.  Conidia: bacilliform, bacillary; [co] length [µm]: (low) 4.0 (high) 5.0.  Secondary metabolites: present, hopane-6α,7ß,22-triol | zeorin (Sopane-6α,22-diol) | unknown/unidentified compound(s) | unknown/unidentified anthraquinone(s).  Primary photobiont: present, cyanobacterial.  Secondary photobionts (eg in cephalodia): absent.

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Troy McMullin  
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Stephen Sharnoff  
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