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Nephroma helveticum Ach.
Family: Nephromataceae
[Nephroma resupinatum var. helveticum (Ach.) Gyeln.,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, continuously or irregularly forming rosettes, 3-8 cm wide, loosely adnate, lobate lobes: irregular, 2-4 mm wide, elongate; lobe tips: usually subrotund, frequently dissected marginally in teeth-like pattern upper surface: usually medium to dark brown or red-brown, rarely gray-brown, shiny or somewhat pubescent, isidiate isidia: initially cylindrical but becoming flattened, 0.1-0.2 mm diam.; without soredia but frequently with regeneration squamules that may cover the whole thallus medulla: white photobiont: the cyanobacterium Nostoc lower surface: dark brown to black but paler at the margins, pubescent or tomentose but not papillate Apothecia: common, immersed on lower surface at tips of lobes, orbicular, up to 8 mm diam., cup-shaped, sessile; dorsal surface: scabrid and often markedly honey-combed; margin: prominent with thalloid, pectinate rim; disc: dark brown; exciple: hyaline or light brown, 20-30 µm thick; epithecium: brown or brownish yellow; hypothecium: hyaline asci: 8-spored ascospores: subfusiform; 3-septate, 20-27 x 6-8 µm; wall: thick, light brown Pycnidia: marginal, immersed, punctiform, 0.09-0.15 mm diam. conidia: rod-shaped, 3-4 x 1-2 µm Spot tests: upper surface: K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ pale yellow or K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with unknown brown pigment; medulla with triterprenes 7α acetoxyhopan-22-ol, hopane-7α, 22-diol and an accessory unknown. Habitat and ecology: on acidic rocks among mosses in moderate shade and tree trunks in moist canyons at mid- to high elevations, most common in spruce-fir regions World distribution: Africa, Australasia and throughout the Northern Hemisphere, where it occurs in boreal and north temperate regions and extends south along the west coasts in maritime influenced regions Sonoran distribution: central and SE Arizona and the Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua.
Nephroma helveticum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Nephroma helveticum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Nephroma helveticum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Nephroma helveticum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Nephroma helveticum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Nephroma helveticum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Nephroma helveticum image
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