Thallus: fruticose, attached at a basal holdfast, often erect, up to 5 cm long branching: palmate or fan-shaped, undivided or composed of few branches, growing from a narrow holdfast branches: solid, flattened, broad, up to 20(-30) mm wide surface: yellowish green, longitudinally or reticulately wrinkled with elevated chondroid strands, white decorticate depressions common on lower surface, lacking soredia, isidia or pseudocyphellae cortex: thin; chondroid strands: continuous, smooth Apothecia: laminal or subterminal, up to 10 mm in diam. disc: flat to convex; margin: concolorous with the thallus, entire asci: elongate-clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, 1-septate, ellipsoid, 12-16 x 6-7 µm Pycnidia: not observed Spot tests: cortex K-, C-, KC+ yellow, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: cortex with usnic acid (minor); medulla with atranorin (+trace). Substrate and ecology: on bark World distribution: cosmopolitan in temperate regions Sonoran distribution: Arizona, Baja California and Sonora. Notes: Ramalina sinensis is unique in its palmate branches with longitudinal or reticulately ridges of chondroid strands. It might be confused with R. palmiformis that differs in having smaller ascospores and by producing boninic acid.