Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Squamules: up to 10 mm wide, rounded, adnate and dispersed to adjacent or imbricate, usually weakly to strongly concave upper surface: orange to bright red or pink, more rarely reddish brown, dull, partly to entirely pruinose, sparingly fissured margin: concolorous with upper side or white, down-turned or more rarely straight, more or less entire upper cortex: up to 80-140 µm thick, composed of thin-walled hyphae with round lumina, containing crystals of calcium oxalate but no lichen substances medulla: containing crystals of lichen substances and calcium oxalate lower cortex: absent or poorly developed lower surface: white to pale brown Apothecia: up to 2 mm diam., marginal, immarginate even when young, black, epruinose or white pruinose ascospores: ellipsoid, 12-16 x 6-8 µm Pycnidia: unknown Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolite: norstictic acid. Substrate and ecology: on soil in open habitats, from deserts to juniper-pinyon pine woodlands, up to 1840 m World distribution: southern Africa, Australia and North America Sonoran distribution: fairly common in Arizona, California, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Sinaloa and Sonora.