Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 2.
Thallus: crustose, thick, thin, or evanescent, usually continuous, frequently with small marginal lobes 0.2-0.3 mm wide, plane or rugose surface: light gray-green or ochraceous to light brown, dull or shiny; margin: usually determinate; prothallus: lacking; vegetative propagules: absent Apothecia: adnate to sessile, frequent and often contiguous, up to 0.5-1.1 mm in diam. disc: dark brown to black, plane becoming convex thalline margin: concolorous with thallus, 0.1-0.15 mm wide, entire and persistent, or rarely poorly developed; excipular ring: often present, confluent thalline exciple: 70-120 µm wide laterally; cortex: 5-10 µm wide; epinecral layer: 5-10 µm wide; cortical cells: up to 4-6.5 µm wide, pigmented or not; algal cells: up to 8.5-17.5 µm in diam.; thalline exciple: (60-)90-140 µm thick below; cortex: 5-30 µm wide; epinecral layer: absent or 5-10(-20) µm thick proper exciple: hyaline, 1020 µm wide laterally, expanding to 30-80 µm at periphery hymenium: 100-140 µm tall; paraphyses: 2-3 µm wide, sometimes conglutinate, with apices up to 3-5 µm wide, lightly pigmented and immersed in dispersed pigment to form red-brown epihymenium; hypothecium: hyaline, 90120 µm thick asci: clavate, 80-110 x 19-26 µm, 8-spored ascospores: brown, with 2-4 cells at first, then pseudomuriform, ellipsoid, (4-)6-11(-12) celled, type A development, (20.5-)25.5-27(-31.5) x (10-)12-13(-15) µm, lumina irregularly rounded; torus: absent; walls: not ornamented Pycnidia: pear-shaped, immersed conidia: bacilliform, 3.5-4 x c. 1 µm Spot tests: K- or K+ rose-violet, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: ± skyrin, deoxylichesterinic acid present in all specimens, graciliformin, ± pannarin (both minor). Substrate and ecology: typically on soil or terricolous mosses and often in shaded crevices between rocks, suggesting that it requires more moisture than is typical for its xeric habitats, also rarely occurring on the horizontal stems of dead shrubs on the ground, an extension of its usual terricolous habitat World distribution: widely distributed in dry, warm temperate regions across low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, Macronesia, southern and western Europe and eastwards to the Himalaya and as far south as the equator in South America (Ecuador) and Africa (Kenya), and southwestern North America Sonoran distribution: common in southern California and parts of southern Arizona, southwards into Chihuahua. Notes: Rinodina intermedia is characterized by its 3septate or typically pseudomuriform spores with type-A development and by its unique chemistry in the genus. It can only be confused with R. conradii Körb. that differs in possessing type-B spore development and strictly 3-septate spores. Rinodina conradii does not occur in the Sonoran region, having a cool temperate distribution. The two species are discussed at length by Mayrhofer et al. (2001). It is the only species with a Sonoran distribution in the sense of McGlaughlin (1989).