Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Thallus: crustose, convex-areolate to bullate surface: white to beige or pale green, pruinose, esorediate phenocortex: upper part hyaline, lower part inspersed with yellowish crystals Apothecia: lecideine; up to 1 mm in diam., sparse, broadly sessile disc: black, epruinose, flat to convex margin: thin, usually excluded with age proper exciple: up to 40 µm broad, ±brown throughout, outermost part of pigmented hyphal caps continuous with epihymenium, extending from a deep reddish brown hypothecium (leptoclinoides-brown, textura intricata; c. 170 µm tall, HNO3-) hymenium: hyaline, not inspersed with oil droplets, c. 75 µm tall; paraphyses: sparsely branched epihymenium: dark brown (cf. elachista-brown, HNO3-), forming a thin, continuous layer of 2-3 µm broad paraphysal tips with a 5 µm broad pigment cap (cf. elachista-brown, HNO3-) asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: soon brown, 1-septate, ellipsoid, not or slightly constricted, not curved, 13-17 x 6.5-7 µm; usually with apical and/or septal wall thickenings; wall layers: not always distinct (pigmentation of mature spores apically weaker and laterally stronger); ornamentation: not visible in DIC Pycnidia: distinct, with a black ostiole conidia: bacilliform, 5-6 x 1-1.5 µm Spot tests: K+ yellow Secondary metabolites: only atranorin detected (TLC by F. Bungartz). Substrate and ecology: on soil World and Sonoran distribution: only known from southern California. Notes: The protologue in Tuckerman (1888, p. 88) apparently refers to the specimens studied here, but Imshaug (1951) chose a specimen from Baja California as the lectotype. We have not seen that material, and additional studies are necessary to assess the taxonomic status of material studied here.