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Xanthoparmelia subramigera (Gyelnik) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia subramigera Gyeln.]
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, adnate to loosely adnate, 4-12 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular to sublinear, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, contiguous to somewhat imbricate, 1.5-4 mm wide, not lobulate; apices: subrotund, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow-green, smooth, shiny, epruinose and weakly maculate, moderately to densely isidiate isidia: initially subglobose, soon becoming cylindrical, simple to sparsely branched, 0.08-0.15 mm in diam., 0.2-1 mm tall; tips: syncorticate, pale brown, sometimes weakly erumpent; soralia and pustulae absent medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale to medium brown, plane, moderately to densely rhizinate; rhizines: pale brown, simple, 0.5-1 mm long Apothecia: rare, substipitate, 2-7 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin: smooth, pruina absent asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 9-10 x 4-5 µm Pycnidia: rare, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 5-6 x 0.5 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with succinprotocetraric acid (major), fumarprotocetraric acid (major or minor), protocetraric acid (minor) and sometimes with virensic and physodalic acids (minor or trace). Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, often in open, sometimes marine-influenced, subtropical habitats World distribution: eastern Asia, Africa, North and South America and Oceania Sonoran distribution: common in southern California, Baja California Sur, Sonora and Sinaloa. Notes: Xanthoparmelia subramigera is the only isidiate species in the region with a brown lower cortex and medullary fumarprotocetraric acid as the major secondary metabolite. It occurs fairly commonly in Oceania, and is relatively common in coastal to somewhat inland areas.
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
charles gardner  
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image
Gary Perlmutter  
Xanthoparmelia subramigera image