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Xanthoparmelia mexicana (Gyelnik) Hale
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia mexicana Gyeln.]
Xanthoparmelia mexicana image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, adnate to loosely adnate, 4-10 cm in diam., irregularly lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, plane to subconvex, separate, contiguous to somewhat imbricate, (0.5-)1.5-4 mm wide, not lobulate; apices: subrotund, smooth to crenate, eciliate upper surface: yellow-green, smooth, shiny, epruinose and emaculate, moderately to densely isidiate isidia: initially subglobose, soon becoming cylindrical to coralloid branched, 0.1-0.2 mm in diam., 0.1-0.5 mm tall; tips: syncorticate, brown to blackish brown, sometimes weakly erumpent; soralia and pustulae absent medulla: white, with continuous algal layer lower surface: pale to medium brown, plane, moderately to densely rhizinate; rhizines: pale brown, simple, 0.2-0.5 mm long Apothecia: rare, substipitate, 2-7 mm wide, laminal on thallus; disc: cinnamon-brown to dark brown; margin: smooth, pruina absent asci: clavate, 8spored ascospores: hyaline, simple, ellipsoid, 9-10 x 4-5 µm Pycnidia: rare, immersed conidia: bifusiform, 6-7 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K-, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow to dark red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with usnic acid (major); medulla with salazinic acid (major) consalazinic acid (minor), and usually norstictic and protocetraric acids (trace). Substrate and ecology: on acidic rocks, often on soil near the coast, in open, arid habitats World distribution: Africa, Asia, Australasia, southern North America and South America Sonoran distribution: common at lower elevations in Arizona, southern California, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua and Sonora. Note: Xanthoparmelia mexicana is probably the most common Xanthoparmelia in the Sonoran region. Typically it is a somewhat broad lobed species with dense isidia, a pale to reddish brown lower cortex and salazinic acid as the major medullary metabolite. In the interior deserts of central Arizona, X. mexicana often has narrower lobes and a higher degree of adnation than coastal populations.
Xanthoparmelia mexicana image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Xanthoparmelia mexicana image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Xanthoparmelia mexicana image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Xanthoparmelia mexicana image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Xanthoparmelia mexicana image
Stephen Sharnoff  
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