Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2007. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 3.
Thallus: erect-shrubby, tufted, 2-5 cm long branching: the whole thallus anisotomic-dichotomous basal part: paler than or concolorous to branches or ±pale brown branches: tapering; lateral branches: distinctly narrowed at attachment point segments: terete, ±cylindrical to strongly sausage-like papillae/tubercles: verrucous, few to numerous, irregularly distributed mainly on secondary branches fibercles: absent fibrils: short (< 3mm) and thick, spinulous, unevenly distributed on the whole thallus, often numerous on the apices, giving a spinulous aspect to the terminal part of the thallus soralia: typically minute, smaller than half the diameter of the branch, often fusing together thus looking like a single large soralium, typically even to sometimes ±stipitate, not efflorescent-excrescent, primarily developing initially on the cortex (secondary branches and apices), rarely on top of tubercles (main and secondary branches), rarely present on main branches but mainly on terminal branches, plane, of irregular shape, usually without a sharply delimited cortical rim isidiomorphs: short (0.1-0.2 mm), numerous at the beginning but often absent on mature soralia pseudocyphellae: absent cortex: thin to moderately thick (4-7%), shiny medulla: moderately thick to thick, lax to dense central axis: thin to moderately thick, sometimes orange pigmented Apothecia: not seen Spot tests: either K+ yellow turning red, C-, KC-, P + orangish yellow, or K+ dull yellow turning reddish orange, C-, KC-, P+ deep yellow, or K+ yellow slowly turning orangish, C-, KC-, P+ deep orange, or K-, C-, KC-, P+ orangish yellow or K-, C-, KC-, P- Secondary metabolites: salazinic acid (major), ±consalazinic acid (minor), ±protocetraric acid (minor), ± norstictic acid (minor), ±fatty acids (minor); norstictic acid (major), ±fatty acids (minor); norstictic acid (major), lobaric acid (major); stictic acid (major), norstictic acid (major), ±constictic acid (minor), ±cryptostictic acid (minor), ±menegazziaic acid (minor); protocetraric acid (major); or none detected.