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Parmotrema perforatum (Jacq.) A. Massal.
Family: Parmeliaceae
[Parmelia erecta E. C. Berry,  more]
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Stephen Sharnoff  
Thallus: foliose, loosely adnate, 3-15 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 10-20 mm wide, margin becoming lacerate to lacinate with age; apices: rotund, ciliate; cilia: up to 4 mm wide upper surface: gray with some blackened areas, smooth to rugulose, shiny, epruinose, strongly white maculate, becoming reticulately cracked with age; soredia, isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown with a mottled ivory (rarely tan) naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate; rhizines: scattered, simple Apothecia: common, substipitate, up to 20 mm in diam.; margin: rugose, white maculate; disc: brown, perforate ascospores: broadly ellipsoid, 12-16 x 7-9 µm Pycnidia: not seen Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K+ yellow turning orange, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with norstictic acid (major) and connorstictic acid (minor). Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks World distribution: Mexico, eastern USA, southern Africa and Ireland Sonoran distribution: Sierra Madre Occidental region of Chihuahua.
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Troy McMullin  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Troy McMullin  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Gary Perlmutter  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Gary Perlmutter  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Gary Perlmutter  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmotrema perforatum image
Stephen Sharnoff  
Parmotrema perforatum image
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