Nash, T.H., Ryan, B.D., Gries, C., Bungartz, F., (eds.) 2002. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region. Vol 1.
Thallus: foliose, adnate to loosely adnate, 3-15 cm in diam., lobate lobes: subirregular, elongate, slightly imbricate, plane, separate, 5-15 mm wide; apices: rotund, subascending, ciliate; cilia: up to 4 mm long upper surface: gray, smooth, usually shiny, faintly white maculate, reticulately cracked with age soredia: granular, common, in linear to subcapitate, marginal soralia that sometimes develop on marginal lacinae; isidia and pustulae: absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black with brown and mottled white naked zone peripherally, centrally rhizinate; rhizines: scattered, simple Apothecia: rare, substipitate, up to 5 mm in diam.; margin: often sorediate; disc: brown, perforate, ascospores: ellipsoid, 13-20 x 8-10 µm Pycnidia: rare, punctiform conidia: sublageniform, 6-8 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ purple, P- Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chloroatranorin; medulla with norlobaridone (major), loxodin (± trace), protolichesterinic acid (trace). Substrate and ecology: usually on trees in open habitats, rarely on rocks World distribution: pantropical and some adjacent temperate areas Sonoran distribution: SE Arizona and the Sierra Madre Occidental region of Sonora and Sinaloa.